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The objective of this study was to analyse the dynamics of spatial dispersion of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil by correlating them to socioeconomic indicators. This is an ecological study of COVID-19 cases and deaths between 26 February and 31 July 2020. All Brazilian counties were used as units of analysis. The incidence, mortality, Bayesian incidence and mortality rates, global and local Moran indices were calculated. A geographic weighted regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 and socioeconomic indicators (independent variables). There were confirmed 2 662 485 cases of COVID-19 reported in Brazil from February to July 2020 with higher rates of incidence in the north and northeast. The Moran global index of incidence rate (0.50, P = 0.01) and mortality (0.45 with P = 0.01) indicate a positive spatial autocorrelation with high standards in the north, northeast and in the largest urban centres between cities in the southeast region. In the same period, there were 92 475 deaths from COVID-19, with higher mortality rates in the northern states of Brazil, mainly Amazonas, Pará and Amapá. The results show that there is a geospatial correlation of COVID-19 in large urban centres and regions with the lowest human development index in the country. In the geographic weighted regression, it was possible to identify that the percentage of people living in residences with density higher than 2 per dormitory, the municipality human development index (MHDI) and the social vulnerability index were the indicators that most contributed to explaining incidence, social development index and the municipality human development index contributed the most to the mortality model. We hope that the findings will contribute to reorienting public health responses to combat COVID-19 in Brazil, the new epicentre of the disease in South America, as well as in other countries that have similar epidemiological and health characteristics to those in Brazil.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
This study aimed to assess the validity of a portable anthropometer against the gold standard among 2-year-old infants from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort.
Birth cohort study.
A fixed Harpenden® infant anthropometer was considered as the gold standard for measuring infant length due to its greater precision and stability. The portable SANNY® (model ES2000) anthropometer was the instrument to be validated. The acceptable mean difference in length between the anthropometers was 0·5 cm. In order to compare length estimates, the interviewers carried out two length measures for each of the anthropometers (fixed and portable) and for each child. The mean of the two lengths was calculated for each anthropometer, and their difference was calculated.
A subsample of 252 24-month-old members of the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.
Children’s mean age was 23·5 months. According to Bland–Altman plot, there were no differences in overall lengths between the portable and the fixed anthropometers, or in lengths according to sex. There was a high overall concordance between the length estimates of the fixed and portable anthropometers (ρ = 0·94; 95 % CI 0·92, 0·95).
The portable anthropometer proved to be accurate to measure the length of 24-month-old infants, being applicable to studies using the same standardised protocol used in the present study.
To study whether there are personality characteristics that discriminate between IPV women and non-abused control women, taking into account the effect of emotional state (depressive symptoms).
A total of 176 women victim of IPV and 193 non-abused control women were assessed with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ; Livesley, 1990), the Beck Depression Inventory -II (BDI-II; Beck, 1996), and the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA; Hudson & McIntosh, 1981). Women victim of IPV were recruited from Domestic Violence Centers, and non-abused control women were recruited from Primary Care Centers and Mental Health Services. A two way analysis of variance (IPV * Depression) were used for detecting differences in personality traits taking into account the effect of depression (BDI ≥ 17).
After controlling for depression, IPV victims scored higher than control women in submissiveness (F=6.41; p=0.01), cognitive distortion (F=4.35; p=0.04), intimacy problems (F=27.02; p< 0.001), suspiciousness (F=5.02; p=0.03) and self-harm (F=4.93; p=0.03), and lower in rejection (F=14.66; p< 0.001).
IPV victims showed high submission, low hostility, intimacy problems, suspiciousness, tendency to depersonalization or derealization, and suicidal ideation and attempts, as a result of chronic abuse. Some of these aspects could be explained by the presence of PTSD, more than by pre-existing personality characteristics. Traumatic and chronic stress can alter functional aspects of the brain and lead to the development of dysfunctional cognitive and behavioral characteristics that may be considered in the psychotherapeutic approach.
Despite lithium has been used for the last 50 years as a maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder during pregnancy, there is limited information about perinatal clinical outcomes from fetal exposure to lithium.
1. To quantify the rate of lithium placental passage
2. To assess any association between plasma concentration of lithium at delivery and perinatal outcome.
Observational and prospective study. Subjects: Women in maintenance treatment with lithium, being attended during pregnancy at the Perinatal Psychiatry Programme of Hospital Clínic (Barcelona, Spain) between 2007 and 2009. Procedure: We assessed sociodemographical data; dose/day of lithium carbonate; other drugs doses; plasmatic concentration of lithium carbonate in maternal blood intrapartum and in the umbilical cord; obstetrical maternal complications; gestational age at delivery; weight at delivery; Apgar scores; congenital malformations; hospital stays, infant serum concetrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Eight mother-child diads. Mean age of the mother (SD): 32.1 (4,7); 100% caucasian and married. Mean dose of maternal lithium (SD): 675mg (237,5mg). Premature rupture of membranes (%):25. Gestational mean age (in weeks) (SD): 39,9 (1). Birth weight (SD) : 3625gr (451,2gr); Mean Apgar1min (SD): 8,38 (1,1); Mean Apgar5min (SD): 9,75 (0,4). Loss of fetal intrapartum wellness (%): 12,5. Days of hospitalization (mean) (SD):9,5(16,6). Lithium plasmatic concentration (mEq/L), mean (SD): maternal 0,45(0,1), umbilical cord 0,33(0,1), lithium ratio uc/m 0,93 (0,3); infant TSH μU/mL mean (SD): 4,9(4,6).
Lithium placental passsage was 0,93 (0,63-1,07). ≤At umbilical cord lithium levels ≤ 0.60 mEq/L, we didn't have any preterm deliveries, low birth weight newborns, nor neonatal complications.
Depersonalization (DP) is a common and complex clinical phenomenon in neurology and psychiatry. It is defined as an experience in which the individual feels a sense of unreality and detachment from him/herself. Prevalence and clinical correlates of dissociative symptoms in general, and DP in particular have been associated to panic disorder (Hunter et al., 2004). Moreover, DP has been associated with certain personality traits, specifically “harm-avoidant” temperament dimension, immature defenses, and overconnection and disconnection cognitive schemata (Simeon et al., 2002).
To investigate the prevalence of DP syndrome in panic disorder and its relationship with personality.
One-hundred-four consecutive adult patients with panic disorder were assessed with the Semi- Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Axis I and II. All participants were evaluated with the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (Sierra and Berrios, 2000) and the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory. The severity of panic disorder was measured with the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale.
Seventeen patients (16.3%) had a DP syndrome. There were not socio-demographic differences between both groups with and without DP syndrome. Patients with DP syndrome showed a higher score in “self-transcendence” character dimension (p< .001), higher prevalence of personality disorders (p=.007) and greater severity of panic disorder (p=.007). A logistic regression analysis showed that severity of panic disorder (p=.031) and higher “self-transcendence” personality dimension (p=.019) predicts DP syndrome in panic disorder patients. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed the goodness-of-fit of the model.
The study confirms the association of DP syndrome with panic disorder and their relationship with “self-transcendence” personality dimension.
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors in early postpartum that predict postpartum depression (PPD) at 6-8 weeks.
A prospective cohort of 309 women was studied between the 2nd-3rd days postpartum and at 6-8 weeks postpartum. Initially we administered a general information questionnaire that included obstetrical variables and history of personal and family affective disorders. Between the 2nd and 3rd days postpartum they filled out the Spanish version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberg Anxiety Trait and State Inventory (STAI-R/S), Neuroticism Dimension (EPQ), St Paul Ramsey Questionnaire (life events) and Duke Social Support Scale. At 6-8 weeks postpartum they filled out again the EPDS. Women who scored ≥10 were screened as having PPD.
The incidence of PPD at 6-8 weeks was 14.6%. After Bonferroni correction, univariated analysis showed that previous personal history of depression (p<0.001), high neuroticism (p<0.001), low social support (p<0.002) and high EPDS (p<0.001) in the immediate postpartum were associated with PPD. Logistical regression analysis identified previous personal history of depression and high initial level of depression (OR=14.6; 95%CI=4.8-12.2; p<0.001) as risk factors for PPD. The absence of signification of the Hosmer-Lemersshow test (x2 =9.654; df=8; p=0.290) indicated the goodness-of-fit of the prediction model.
A previous history of depression and EPDS≥10 in the immediate postpartum allow to identify women with high risk of PPD before leaving the Obstetric Ward.
This study has been supported in part by grants: Instituto Carlos III: GO3/184; FIS: PI041783 and FIS 05/2565.
Cannabis is the world's most widely used illicit drug. It can impair verbal learning and induce psychosis, both acutely and possibly following long term use. But, where cannabis acts in the brain to impair verbal learning and induce psychotic symptoms is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify how one of the main psychoactive ingredients of cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) acts on the brain to impair verbal learning and induce psychotic symptoms.
15 healthy males with minimal exposure to cannabis, were studied on 2 occasions approximately 1 month apart, following oral administration of 10mg of THC or placebo 1 hour prior to scanning, in a double-blind design. MR images were acquired on a 1.5T GE camera while subjects performed a Verbal paired associates task with separate encoding followed by retrieval conditions, with the conditions repeated in the same sequence 4 times. We examined the main effects of drug, task and drug- task interactions.
Administration of THC abolished the normal linear decrement in parahippocampal activation across successive encoding blocks and was associated with a trend for impaired word recall. Administration of THC also altered the normal time-dependent change in ventral striatal activation during retrieval of word pairs which was directly correlated with concurrently induced psychotic symptoms.
These results suggest that impairment in learning and verbal memory associated with cannabis use may be mediated through its action in the medial temporal cortex while psychotic symptoms may be induced through its action in the ventral striatum.
To examine whether the postpartum depression (PPD) subgroup with positive antithyroid antibodies (Ab+) compared with the PPD subgroup without positive presence of Ab (Ab -) have a different psycho-social and psychopathological characteristics.
One hundred three (N=103) patients with PPD according with DSM-IV criteria were included. Autoimmune status of the thyroid (Thyroperoxidasa antibodies, Thyroglobulin antibodies), severity of depression and anxiety (EPDS and 21-item Hamilton and STAI-S scales), psychosocial variables (Early Trauma Inventory, Saint Paul Ramsey Questionnaire, Marital Adjustment Test) were assessed joint with other several demographics and reproductive variables.
The presence of childhood sexual abuse in PPD women increase the probability of Ab(+) (OR= 2,528 ; 95% CI =1,00-6,39). The levels of Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) titers have a strongly correlation (p<0,000) with the levels of the Early Trauma Inventory.
The results of our study give a link between early stress, the immune system, and postpartum depression.The implication of the immunitary system in the etiopathogenesis of the PPD through the long lasting sensitization of the inflammatory response system and the endocrine system in front to stress behind the CNS and their transmisors and receptors activation is discussed.
The aim of this study was to examine the temperament and character profile as risk factors of interferon and ribavirin (IFN+RBV) induced psychopathology in chronic hepatitis C patients. According to the Cloninger's biosocial model (TCI), the temperament dimension harm avoidance (HA) is suggested to indicate central serotonergic turnover, which is further correlated with depressive/anxiety states.
198 patients with chronic hepatitis C in treatment with IFN+RBV were evaluated at baseline and 4, 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. All subjects were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), the Hospital Scale of Anxiety and Depression (HADS) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-revised (TCI-R) questionnaire (at basal level).
At baseline, 32 patients had a psychiatric syndrome (16.1%). During the first six months of IFN+RBV treatment the incidence of depression/anxiety syndromes was 37.9% (n=63/166). The personality factors associated (p<0.001, corrected) were: HA dimension; fatigability subscale (HA4), anticipatory worry subscale (HA1); self-directedness dimension (SD); congruent subscale (SD5); and; social acceptance subscale (C1). By logistic regression analysis the independent variables that most predict the induced cases (PHQ+) (dependent variable) were: previous history of mood disorder (p<0.001; Exp(b)=5.655), and both HA4 (p<0.001; Exp(b)=1,104) and C1 (p<0.001; Exp(b)=0.845) subscales.
The assessment of personality traits (HA, C) and previous history of psychiatric disorders before start the IFN+RBV treatment in chronic hepatitis C patients might identify the patients at risk of induced depression/anxiety disorders during the treatment.
This study has been done in part with grants: Instituto-Carlos III (G03/02) (Red-Hepatología) and (GO3/184) (Red-Genotipación/Psiquiatría Genética).
Although there is considerable evidence on the impact of negative life events during childhood on the etiology of psychiatric disorders, little is known about the specific influence on the social anxiety disorder. The objective of the study was to examine this association.
In a cross-sectional survey in 571 university students we analysed the association between loss of someone close, emotional abuse, physical abuse, family violence and sexual abuse with social anxiety assessed by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale.
Twenty percent of the sample had social anxiety and 50,6% had an early negative life events in childhood. After controlling for family psychiatric history and gender only family violence was associated with an increased risk of social anxiety (OR = 4.63; 95%CI = 1.13–18.9).
This study found childhood family violence associated with social phobia in university students.
To design a scale to measure perceived reasons to stay in violent partner relationships, and to carry out a preliminar analysis of its psychometric properties.
A 44 dicotomic items (true/false) self-report scale was designed (more a last open response question), elaborated according to published studies and open interviews with battered women. The questionnaire was administered to a pilot sample of 10 women to test its viability and comprehensibility. The questionnaire was then administered to a sample of 132 battered women. Exploratory factorial analysis was used to establish the underlying empirical structure. Internal consistency was calculated by mean of Cronbach's alfa coefficient.
The factor analysis identified two empirical factors: external factor (situational factor) and internal factor (psychological factors). Cronbach's alphas were 0.856 and 0.811, respectively.
The Block Escape in Intimate Partner Violence Scale is a reliable and easily comprehensible instrument mesuring percibed reasons of permanence with the aggressor. Its usefulness in both setting, clinical and social, will allow design with great effectiveness intervention strategies suitable for each case.
This study was supported in part by grant-58/05 from the Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales. Instituto de la Mujer.
Few studies have evaluated personality traits as a risk factor of postpartum depression (PPD). The Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire (VPSQ; Boyce et al. 2001), is a 9-item self-report scale developed to evaluate personality vulnerability to PPD with satisfactory psychometric properties. It assesses 9 personality dimensions: Coping, Nervy, Timidity, Sensitivity, Worrier, Obsessive, Volatility Organized and Expressive.
To study the vulnerable personality style in a Spanish postpartum sample.
A case-control study: 145 PPD women visited at the Psychiatry Perinatal Unit were compared to 203 healthy women from a postpartum population based study. All women were assessed with the VPSQ (Spanish adaptation), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview (DSM-IV) axis I. Personality traits were evaluated after full clinical remission. The study was approved by the Institution board.
Univariated analysis showed that women with PPD obtained higher scores (p<.000) in seven VPSQ personality dimensions: Coping, Nervy, Timidity, Sensitivity, Worrier, Obsessive, and Volatility, as well as the VPSQ total score (p<.000). Personal history of depression (p<.000) was also associated with PPD. In the logistic regression analysis; an increase of one point on the VPSQ total score increased the OR in 1.151 fold (95%CI:1.095-1.210) the association with PPD. Other variables associated were age and personal history of depression. The Hosmer-Lemershow test (p=.706) indicated the goodness-of-fit of the model.
Women with PPD had higher scores in the Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire. They were more nervous, timid, sensitive, obsessive, worried, angry and cope poorly than healthy postpartum women.
There is considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of Cannabidiol (CBD), the second most abundant component of Cannabis. While delta-9-THC, the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, impairs memory and induces anxiety and psychotic symptoms acutely and increases the risk of psychotic disorders in regular cannabis users, CBD does not impair memory, may have anxiolytic and possibly antipsychotic effects. Hence, we compared directly the acute neural effects of these two active ingredients of cannabis, by combining pharmacological challenge with fMRI. Using a double-blind, repeated measures design and oral challenge with 10mg of delta-9-THC, 600mg of CBD or placebo in 15 healthy volunteers, we examined whether delta-9-THC and CBD have opposing effects on the neural substrates of verbal memory and fear processing and whether they also have opposing effects on the neural substrates of anxiety and psychotic symptoms induced by delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC induced anxiety and psychotic symptoms acutely while there was a trend for a reduction in anxiety but no change in psychotic symptoms with CBD. During the memory task, delta-9-THC attenuated and CBD increased activation in the striatum bilaterally. Effect of delta-9-THC on striatal activation was inversely correlated with the psychotic symptoms induced by it concomitantly. During the processing of fearful faces, delta-9-THC increased and CBD attenuated activation in the amygdala and these effects correlated with their anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects respectively. These opposing effects of CBD on the key neural substrates for psychotic symptoms and anxiety induced by delta-9-THC may suggest its possible therapeutic role in countering these conditions.
The prevalence of social anxiety is estimated of 7-12% of the general population and 18% of university student. Social anxiety has a high prevalence of psychiatry and personality comorbidity. At age of 18-25 years old 80% of social anxiety cases have onset. To detect social anxiety at that age maybe important to avoid chronicity of the illness.
To study personality traits associated with social anxiety in university students.
We designed a cross-sectional study at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. Student were recruited by an advertisement. All student signed the informed consent. We collected: Socio-demographic data, personal and family psychiatry history, and the Liebowitz Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Temperament and Character Inventory of Cloninger. We defined as a social anxiety group a LSAS ≥50 total score.
Five hundred ninety-one students enter in the study. Final sample after excluded those who did not filled the rating scales was 574 participants: 75% were women, mean age (SD): 22.7 (5.3), 156 (124 women/32 men), 26% had social anxiety. Eighteen percent had family and 22% personal psychiatry history. The personality profile of the social anxiety group was: high harm avoidance (HA) (p< .001), low novelty seeking (NS) (p< .001), and low self-directedness (SD) (p< .001).
By logistic regression, after corrected by sex, age, personal and family psychiatry history, HA (OR=1.118; 95%CI=1.081-1.155), NS (OR=0.954;95%CI=0.927-0.982) and SD (OR=0.957;95%CI=0.930-0.985) predicted social anxiety. R2Nagelkerke=0.442. Hosmer-Lemeshow test (p>.05).
A profile of high HA, low NS and SD personality dimensions may predict those university students with social anxiety.
To examine the postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and positive thyroid antibodies (Ab+) frequency in the Postpartum Depression (PPD) and to investigate if the PPD patients subgroup with PPTD and/or Ab+ have different characteristics.
Eighty one (N=81) patients with PPD, according with DSM-IV criteria, were included. Thyroid function (Free T3, Free T4,TSH), autoimmune status of the thyroid (Thyroperoxidasa antibodies, Thyroglobulin antibodies) and severity of depression (EPDS and 21-item Hamilton scales), were assessed joint with other several demographics, psycho-social and reproductive variables.
Twenty per cent of the patients with PPD had positive thyroid antibodies and 14% present PPTD. Prior history of early stressors in the PPD patients were significantly related with the presence of Ab+: the presence of childhood maltreatments and/or sexual abuse increased thirteen times the probability of Ab+ (OR: 13,01, 95% CI, 2.01-84.02). Greater number of total stressors were associated with Ab+ (p< 0,030), and Ab+ women showed a higher average of total stressors (2,1) than antibody negative women (1,52). Depressed women with PPTD had positive correlation with previous depressive episodes (p< 0,008).
The depressed postpartum women with dysregulation of pituitary-thyroid axis have more early childhood stressors and previous depressive episode. The implication of the inmunitary system and the HPT axis in the etiopathogenesis of the PPD through the activation of the response in front to stress is discussed.
The prevalence of mood disorders (anxiety and depression) during pregnancy seems to be similar to the women of the same group without pregnancy. Women with recurrent depression and euthimic women who discontinued antidepressants medication during pregnancy are particularly at high risk for depressive illness. Data about perinatal effects of SSRI antidepressants are gradually accumulating and are controversial. Two meta-analyses and some controlled studies don't find increased risk for major malformations in SSRI-exposed newborn. However, other studies find an increased risk of congenital malformations, poor birth outcomes and neonatal complications.
Neonatal morbidity in infant newborn of women treated with antidepressant drugs.
We examine the relation between the pharmacological treatment of the maternal anxiety/depression during the pregnancy and acute morbidity in infant newborns.
Materials and Methods
Study group of 66 infant newborn of pregnant women with a diagnoses of major depressive episode or defined anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, who were in treatment with antidepressant drugs during pregnancy. Control group: 120 newborn of healthy pregnant women, who did not receive any treatment, and were contemporary of the same gestational age and sex. Criteria of exclusion: demonstrated toxic consumption (alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, opiates, drug of synthesis). Studied variables: Type of childbirth and analgesia; weight and age of gestation; pH of umbilical artery and Apgar test; presence of malformations; morbidity; feeding; withdrawal syndrome.
Infant newborn of mothers exposed to the antidepressant treatment suffered from more pathology than those of the control group (16/66 vs. 14/114; 24.2% vs.12.3%; p=0.038). Two smaller malformations in the study group were observed, a preauricular appendix (group A) and one moderate pielocilicilar ectasy (group C), both in mothers who received paroxetine (2/60; 3.3% vs. 0/114; 0%, p=0.05, Fisher p=0.118, NS). Only one infant newborn displayed compatible clinical signs with moderate withdrawal syndrome (irritability, vomits) from a mother treated with venlafaxine. No case of convulsions was observed. Breast feeding was less frequent in the group of antidepressant treated mothers (38/66, 57.6% vs. 86/116, 74,1%, p=0.032).
The treatment with antidepressant drugs during pregnancy is necessary for some women. The clinician must weigh the relative risks of various treatment options and take into account individual patient wishes. Although the antidepressant drugs suppose an increased risk for the newborn, it could be assumable for the benefit that represents maintain the mother in an euthimic situation.
We propose to discuss the clinical management, as well as, the accuracy of the psychiatric and obstetric controls to minimize the neonatal complications.
Pregnancy and postpartum both imply high risk for developing psychiatric disorders in women.
To study the relationship between life events (LE) and social support degree (SS) during pregnancy and depressive symptoms in early postpartum period.
A cross-sectional study of 309 consecutive Spanish women, evaluated the second day postpartum. They were all over 18 years old and have signed the informed consent. We excluded: illiteracy, cognitive impairment or severe medical illness, psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and decease of the newborn. We collected socio-demographic and obstetrical data, as well as family and personal psychiatric history, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), LE (Saint Paul Ramsey) and SS (DUKE-UNK).
Mean age (SD) was 31.6 (4.7). Most of women were married, had intermediated or high level of education. Sixty-one percent were primiparous. Twenty-six percent had family history and 22% had personal psychiatric history. Mean (SD) of LE was 0.95 (0.89) and of SS was 53.1 (7.6). The prevalence of depressive symptoms according to EPDS scores was 18%. This subgroup of depressed women had more psychiatric family history (p=0.046), less LE (p< 0.001) and more SS during pregnancy (p=0.048). Logistic regression analysis showed that SS was the only significant variable (OR=1.085; 95%CI=0.997-0.994; p=0.001). LE did not achieve statistical significance (OR=1.085; 95%CI=0.997-1.180; p=0.059).
Low social support degree during pregnancy is associated with depressive symptoms during immediate postpartum.
This study has been done in part with grants Instituto Carlos III: G03/184, FIS: PI04178; 05/2565.