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The hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata is categorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List and its population has declined by over 80% in the last century. The Eastern Pacific population is one of the most threatened hawksbill populations globally. Western Mexico is the northern distribution limit for hawksbill sea turtles in the Eastern Pacific and recent research indicates that the Mexican Pacific portion of the population is a separate management unit because of the restricted movements of these turtles. Here we use the most complete database of sighting records in the north-west Pacific of Mexico to identify sites where hawksbill turtles are present. We also develop a conservation index to determine the conservation status of hawksbill turtle sites. Our results demonstrate the importance of this region for juveniles and the relevance of rocky reefs and mangrove estuaries as habitats for hawksbill turtles. We identified 52 sites with records of hawksbill turtles. Most of these sites (71%) are not protected; however, sites with high conservation value included islands and coastal sites along the Baja California peninsula that are established as marine protected areas. Reefs and mangrove estuaries relevant for hawksbill turtles are probably also significant fish nursery areas that are important for local fishing communities, creating opportunities for conservation strategies that combine science, local engagement and policy to benefit both local fishing communities and hawksbill sea turtle conservation.
Despite the multitude of clinical manifestations of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), studies applying statistical methods to directly investigate patterns of symptom co-occurrence and their biological correlates are scarce.
We assessed 30 symptoms pertaining to different organ systems in 749 adults (age = 55 ± 14 years; 47% female) during in-person visits conducted at 6–11 months after hospitalization due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including six psychiatric and cognitive manifestations. Symptom co-occurrence was initially investigated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and latent variable modeling was then conducted using Item Response Theory (IRT). We investigated associations of latent variable severity with objective indices of persistent physical disability, pulmonary and kidney dysfunction, and C-reactive protein and D-dimer blood levels, measured at the same follow-up assessment.
The EFA extracted one factor, explaining 64.8% of variance; loadings were positive for all symptoms, and above 0.35 for 16 of them. The latent trait generated using IRT placed fatigue, psychiatric, and cognitive manifestations as the most discriminative symptoms (coefficients > 1.5, p < 0.001). Latent trait severity was associated with decreased body weight and poorer physical performance (coefficients > 0.240; p ⩽ 0.003), and elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (coefficient = 0.378; 95% CI 0.215–0.541; p < 0.001) and D-dimer (coefficient = 0.412; 95% CI 0.123–0.702; p = 0.005). Results were similar after excluding subjects with pro-inflammatory comorbidities.
Different symptoms that persist for several months after moderate or severe COVID-19 may unite within one latent trait of PASC. This trait is dominated by fatigue and psychiatric symptoms, and is associated with objective signs of physical disability and persistent systemic inflammation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive functioning in Borderline Personality Disorder subjects, with particular reference to the Working Memory functioning. The Working Memory seems to be relate to core features of the disturb. The final aim was to better understand the disorder and to implement a cognitive training to improve the deficits.
A literature search was conducted in April 2015. Pubmed and Scopus databases were used to find studies to include in the systematic review. The keywords used for the literature search were: “borderline personality disorder”, “borderline personality”, “working memory”, “executive functioning”. In each search, the keywords were used together with the logical operator “and”.
Three studies were included in this systematic review (Table 1). In each study, the working memory was investigated using N-back test. In two of those studies significantly differences were found between patients and healthy group in N-back task. In the third study, which used more tests to investigate working memory domain, no differences were found between the two groups.
Borderline personality disorder patients performed significantly worse on the N-back test compared to healthy controls and the impairment increased with increasing working memory load. In the third study the working memory domain was investigated using four different tests and single scores were not included therefore it was impossible to compare N-back data.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Comorbidities between psychiatric diseases and consumption of traditional substances of abuse are common. Nevertheless, there is no data regarding the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in the psychiatric population.
The purpose of this multicentre survey is to investigate the consumption of a wide variety of psychoactive substances in a young psychiatric sample.
Between September 2013 and November 2015, a questionnaire has been administered, in ten Italian psychiatric care facilities, to a sample of 671 psychiatric patients (48.5% men; 51.5% women), aged between 18 and 26 years (mean age: 22.24).
8.2% of the sample declared use of NPS at least once in a lifetime and 2.2% have assumed NPS in the last three months. The NPS more used were synthetic cannabinoids (4.5%), followed by methamphetamine (3.6%). The three psychiatric diagnosis with more frequent NPS consumption were bipolar disorder (23.1%), personality disorders (11.8%) and schizophrenia and related disorders (11.6%). Bipolar disorder was associated with NPS consumption (P < .001). Among the illicit drugs investigated, 31.4% of the sample was cannabis smoker and 10.7% cocaine user. Moreover, 70.6% of the sample declared alcohol use and 47.7% had binge drinking conducts. In univariate regression analysis, bipolar disorder was positive associated with binge drinking while obsessive compulsive disorder resulted negative associated.
The use of novel psychoactive substances in a young psychiatric population appears to be a frequent phenomenon, probably still underestimated. Bipolar disorder shows an association with NPS use. Therefore, careful and constant monitoring and accurate evaluations of possible clinical effects related to their use are necessary.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In vitro studies have shown several beneficial properties of resveratrol. Epidemiological evidence is still scarce, probably because of the difficulty in estimating resveratrol exposure accurately. The current study aimed to assess the relationships between acute and habitual dietary resveratrol and wine intake and urinary resveratrol excretion in a European population. A stratified random subsample of 475 men and women from four countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study, who had provided 24-h urine samples and completed a 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) on the same day, were included. Acute and habitual dietary data were collected using standardised 24-HDR software and a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire, respectively. Phenol-Explorer was used to estimate the intake of resveratrol and other stilbenes. Urinary resveratrol was analysed using tandem MS. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between estimated dietary intakes of resveratrol and other stilbenes and consumption of wine, their main food source, were very high (r>0·9) when measured using dietary questionnaires and were slightly lower with 24-HDR (r>0·8). Partial Spearman’s correlations between urinary resveratrol excretion and intake of resveratrol, total stilbenes or wine were found to be higher when using the 24-HDR (R2partial approximately 0·6) than when using the dietary questionnaires (R2partial approximately 0·5). Moderate to high correlations between dietary resveratrol, total stilbenes and wine, and urinary resveratrol concentrations were observed. These support the earlier findings that 24-h urinary resveratrol is an effective biomarker of both resveratrol and wine intakes. These correlations also support the validity of the estimation of resveratrol intake using the dietary questionnaire and Phenol-Explorer.
The goal of the present study was to improve the CERES-wheat model simulation of grain protein concentration (GPC) for winter durum wheat and to use the model as a basis for the development of a GPC Simplified Forecasting Index (SFIpro). The performances of CERES-wheat, which is one of the most widespread crop simulation models, with (i) its standard GPC routine and (ii) a novel equation developed to improve the model GPC simulation for durum wheat, were assessed through comparison with field data. Subsequently, CERES-wheat was run for a 56-year period in order to identify the most important status and forcing variables affecting GPC simulation. The number of dry days during the early growth stages and the leaf area index (LAI; green leaf area per unit ground surface area) at heading stage (LAI5) were identified as the main variables positively correlated with CERES-wheat predicted GPC, and so included in the SFIpro. At validation against observed data SFIpro was found to perform differently on the basis of observed plant LAI. In fact, SFIpro was able to forecast GPC variability for intermediate values of LAI5 ranging from 1 to 2, while it totally failed when LAI5 was outside this range (LAI5 < 1 or LAI5 > 2). The results suggest that the relationship between LAI and GPC is not linear and that the model assumptions for GPC simulation in CERES-wheat are only partially confirmed, being valid for an intermediate range of LAI.
Obesity and osteoporosis may have their origins in early postnatal life. This study was designed to evaluate whether flaxseed flour use during lactation period bears effect on body adiposity and skeletal structure of male rat pups at weaning. At birth, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control and experimental (FF) groups, whose dams were treated with control or flaxseed flour diet, respectively, during lactation. At 21 days of age, pups were weaned to assess body mass, length and composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The animals were then sacrificed to carry out analysis of serum profile, intra-abdominal adipocyte morphology and femur characteristics. Differences were considered significant when P<0.05. The FF group displayed the following characteristics (P<0.05): higher body mass, length, bone mineral content, bone area and concentrations of osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; higher levels of stearic, α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids and lower levels of arachidonic acid and cholesterol; smaller adipocyte area; and higher mass, epiphysis distance, diaphysis width, maximal load, break load, resilience and stiffness of femur. Flaxseed flour intake during lactation period promoted adipocyte hypertrophy down-regulation and contributed to pup bone quality at weaning.
Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager, MMI, records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2D spatial resolution and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain the temperature and the density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and the spectra highly depends on the quality of the MMI data and the processing tools. Here, we synthetically investigate the criterion for reliable MMI diagnostics and its effects on the accuracy of the reconstructed images. The pinhole array tilt determines the object spatial sampling efficiency and the minimum reconstruction width, $w$. When the spectral width associated with $w$ is significantly narrower than the spectral linewidth, the line images reconstructed from the MMI data become reliable. The MMI setup has to be optimized for every application to meet this criterion for reliable ICF diagnostics.
We describe the epidemiological trends and spatial distribution of human brucellosis in Italy over 13 years (1998–2010). In the study period 8483 cases were notified in Italy, with a relevant decrease (−89%) from 1998 to 2010. Most cases were notified in southern Italy (Campania, Apulia, Calabria, Sicily). In these regions we observed relevant differences in the risk of brucellosis at province level. Cases were distributed with a seasonal pattern, male patients represented 60% of the cases and no significant differences were observed between age groups. We modelled the underreporting rate that ranged between 2 and 21 (average 12·5). According to our estimates the true number of cases would have ranged from 41 821 to 155 324 providing a far more severe picture of human brucellosis in Italy than the one provided by the surveillance system.
The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings, including dispersion and deposition events, short- and long-term contaminant redistribution following deposition events, and potential countermeasures or remediation efforts for reducing human exposures and doses. The Working Group has developed three modeling exercises, which are designed to permit intercomparison of model predictions and, in one case, comparison of model predictions with measurements. This paper describes the scenarios and provides comparisons of initial modeling results. Reasons for similarities and discrepancies among model predictions are discussed in terms of the modeling approaches, models, and parameter values used by different assessors. Preliminary conclusions emphasize the value of explaining individual approaches and the importance of understanding the effects of different assumptions and parameter values on the modeling results.
In the last few years, cartilage has been the preferred material for reconstruction of the tympanic membrane, particularly in the case of allergy, re-perforation, or total or subtotal perforation. The mechanical characteristics of cartilage offer the advantage of high resistance to retraction and re-perforation. This paper describes two original techniques which reduce cartilage tympanoplasty surgery time, involving a 0.3 mm thick cartilage–perichondrium composite graft to repair the tympanic membrane.
We briefly outline the plans for scientific activities with the International Robotic Antarctic Infrared Telescope (IRAIT), recently mounted at Dome C. We summarize a few fields where infrared observations with the IRAIT telescope can be effective and
we focus on a key project for the Commissioning Phase, namely the determination of the luminosity and of evolutionary parameters for evolved Long-Period Variables (LPVs).
First time-series observations with the 25-cm sIRAIT Antarctic
pilot telescope from May 2007 are presented and show that the site
is well suited for time-series high-precision photometry. Our
target stars were one spotted 5.998-day rotating variable and one
short-period δ-Scuti star. A total of 13 000 BVR CCD
frames covered a time series of 243 consecutive hours.
In this work, we first presents a review of the work that research
teams have developed in collaboration in order to determine the optical
properties of plasmas during the recent years, and showing the
achievements reached. The second part of this paper is devoted to one of
these improvements, which is to include reabsorption of the radiation in
the calculations of dense optically thick plasmas in non-LTE conditions.
Two models recently developed for this purpose are presented. The
quantitative study was focused on aluminum plasmas, which was obtained
recently at LULI experiments.
Hearing threshold has been measured in a group of patients following cochlear implantation with a Clarion® device for the last eight years. The patients had received either a pre-curved carrier or the Hi-Focus I plus Electrode Positioner System (EPS). The assessment was carried out within the first post-operative week as well as at a later stage, between six and 87 months, post-operatively. Residual hearing thresholds were still measurable early after surgery in 24.5 per cent of the patients, without differences between the two different Clarion® models. However, the number of subjects with measurable hearing dropped to 16.3 per cent as observed when hearing was measured at a later stage, with an equal distribution between the two groups of patients. From this study it has been possible to observe that only a limited number of patients maintain residual hearing after Clarion® cochlear implantation, and that this tends to decrease further over time. Nevertheless, the performance of these patients for speech tests did not appear to be affected by deterioration of the pure-tone auditory threshold.