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Optical tracking systems typically trade off between astrometric precision and field of view. In this work, we showcase a networked approach to optical tracking using very wide field-of-view imagers that have relatively low astrometric precision on the scheduled OSIRIS-REx slingshot manoeuvre around Earth on 22 Sep 2017. As part of a trajectory designed to get OSIRIS-REx to NEO 101955 Bennu, this flyby event was viewed from 13 remote sensors spread across Australia and New Zealand to promote triangulatable observations. Each observatory in this portable network was constructed to be as lightweight and portable as possible, with hardware based off the successful design of the Desert Fireball Network. Over a 4-h collection window, we gathered 15 439 images of the night sky in the predicted direction of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Using a specially developed streak detection and orbit determination data pipeline, we detected 2 090 line-of-sight observations. Our fitted orbit was determined to be within about 10 km of orbital telemetry along the observed 109 262 km length of OSIRIS-REx trajectory, and thus demonstrating the impressive capability of a networked approach to Space Surveillance and Tracking.
The detection of fireballs streaks in astronomical imagery can be carried out by a variety of methods. The Desert Fireball Network uses a network of cameras to track and triangulate incoming fireballs to recover meteorites with orbits and to build a fireball orbital dataset. Fireball detection is done on-board camera, but due to the design constraints imposed by remote deployment, the cameras are limited in processing power and time. We describe the processing software used for fireball detection under these constrained circumstances. Two different approaches were compared: (1) A single-layer neural network with 10 hidden units that were trained using manually selected fireballs and (2) a more traditional computational approach based on cascading steps of increasing complexity, whereby computationally simple filters are used to discard uninteresting portions of the images, allowing for more computationally expensive analysis of the remainder. Both approaches allowed a full night’s worth of data (over a thousand 36-megapixel images) to be processed each day using a low-power single-board computer. We distinguish between large (likely meteorite-dropping) fireballs and smaller fainter ones (typical ‘shooting stars’). Traditional processing and neural network algorithms both performed well on large fireballs within an approximately 30 000-image dataset, with a true positive detection rate of 96% and 100%, respectively, but the neural network was significantly more successful at smaller fireballs, with rates of 67% and 82%, respectively. However, this improved success came at a cost of significantly more false positives for the neural network results, and additionally the neural network does not produce precise fireball coordinates within an image (as it classifies). Simple consideration of the network geometry indicates that overall detection rate for triangulated large fireballs is calculated to be better than 99.7% and 99.9%, by ensuring that there are multiple double-station opportunities to detect any one fireball. As such, both algorithms are considered sufficient for meteor-dropping fireball event detection, with some consideration of the acceptable number of false positives compared to sensitivity.
Seven chemical analyses of pink or green tourmalines belonging to the elbalte-schorl series, along with their physical, optical, and X-ray data are presented. Linear variation diagrams showing the relationship between composition and refractive indices, specific gravities, and cell parameters are constructed. Relationship between colour and chemical composition is also discussed.
Cell dimensions have been measured from correctly indexed powder patterns of thirty natural and two synthetic orthopyroxenes. The natural specimens (mostly metamorphic) contain exsolved phases largely avoided during microprobe chemical analysis. Linear regression analysis between the cell dimensions and Mg, Al, Ca contents (ignoring minor elements) was quite unsatisfactory until a term in Mg2 was added. Two separate regression analyses for the ranges Mg 0–0·5 and 0·5–1 using only Mg, Al, and Ca were satisfactory. Olivine yielded satisfactory regressions for the whole range without a term in Mg2 (Louisnathan and Smith, 1968). The difference between olivine and pyroxene results from absence of site preference by Mg and Fe in olivine compared to strong preference in pyroxene revealed by electron density and Mössbauer studies (Bancroft, Burns, and Howie, 1967; Ghose and Hafner, 1967).
The data were recalculated by means of a new best-fit procedure developed by Hey in which the errors in the chemical and physical parameters are considered simultaneously.
Earlier measurements of a and b for plutonic pyroxenes are consistent within possible experimental uncertainties with those given here; however a and b data obtained by Kuno and by Hess on volcanic specimens are considerably higher by variable amounts. Although there are uncertainties in the Ca content and its effect on a and b, the larger dimensions probably result from lower site preference as indicated by Mössbauer studies.
Prediction of Mg, Ca, and Al from just the cell dimensions is only moderately accurate even for metamorphic orthopyroxenes.
Chemical analyses of sixteen lithium-aluminium micas are presented along with their optical, physical, and X-ray data. Compositional variation, substitution relations in structural positions, and octahedral occupancy are discussed. The 2M2 structural types are found to crystallize in volatilerich low-temperature environments whereas the 1M polytypes occur in comparatively volatile-poor and higher-temperature environments. Variation diagrams have been constructed to show the relationship between octahedral sites occupied by and refractive indices and specific gravities.
This paper presents wet chemical analyses of forty-one pyroxenes (thirty-nine of them new) from pyroxene granulites and a few neighbouring rocks from Swat Kohistan and the adjoining Indus Valley. The granulites, considered to be derived from plutonic norites of an island arc tholeiitic nature, constitute one of the most extensive belts of its kind in the world. The pyroxenes are not unusual in any respect but they bear a closer resemblance to metamorphic than to igneous pyroxenes crystallized from deep-seated tholeiitic magmas. The distribution of Mg, Fe, and Mn (average KDMg−Fe=0.57) and the tie-line intersections on the Wo-En join (generally from Wo80.5 to Wo76.5) between the coexisting eighteen pyroxene pairs from the granulites are discussed. Based on eight different methods of geothermometry and other considerations, it is concluded that the pyroxene granulites were metamorphosed at around 800 °C and 7 to 8 kbar.
Chemical analyses, optical properties, and specific gravities are presented for nine axinites. A reciprocal substitution relationship is demonstrated between Mg and Mn2+, and a linear variation diagram is constructed between refractive indices and the (Fe2++Fe3++Mn2++Ti) ions calculated on the basis of 16(O,OH). The composition of these axinites is independent of the composition of their host rocks; their colour appears to be independent of the Fe2+/Mn2+ ratio for the range of iron and manganese values of the specimens investigated.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The shell-substance of the non-marine lamellibranchs from a band in the Lower similis-pulchra Zone of Lancashire is shown to be ankerite. The same mineral also forms pockets inside certain of the shells, the pockets being developed most frequently in the stratigraphically uppermost part of the spaces between the valves. It is considered that the ankerite in the pockets has occupied spaces left by shrinkage of the original mud-filling of the shells. Chemical analyses, specific gravity, and optical properties of the ankerite are given; its composition closely approximates to (Mg2Fe)Ca3(CO3)6.