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Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are risk factors for the development of psychiatric conditions like schizophrenia, particularly if associated with distress. As PLEs have been related to alterations in both white matter and cognition, we investigated whether cognition (g-factor and processing speed) mediates the relationship between white matter and PLEs.
We investigated two independent samples (6170 and 19 891) from the UK Biobank, through path analysis. For both samples, measures of whole-brain fractional anisotropy (gFA) and mean diffusivity (gMD), as indications of white matter microstructure, were derived from probabilistic tractography. For the smaller sample, variables whole-brain white matter network efficiency and microstructure were also derived from structural connectome data.
The mediation of cognition on the relationships between white matter properties and PLEs was non-significant. However, lower gFA was associated with having PLEs in combination with distress in the full available sample (standardized β = −0.053, p = 0.011). Additionally, lower gFA/higher gMD was associated with lower g-factor (standardized β = 0.049, p < 0.001; standardized β = −0.027, p = 0.003), and partially mediated by processing speed with a proportion mediated of 7% (p = < 0.001) for gFA and 11% (p < 0.001) for gMD.
We show that lower global white matter microstructure is associated with having PLEs in combination with distress, which suggests a direction of future research that could help clarify how and why individuals progress from subclinical to clinical psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, we replicated that processing speed mediates the relationship between white matter microstructure and g-factor.
This study determined farm management factors associated with long-duration bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns disclosed in the period 23 May 2016 to 21 May 2018; a study area not previously subject to investigation in Northern Ireland. A farm-level epidemiological investigation (n = 2935) was completed when one or more Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Test (SICCT) reactors or when one or more confirmed (positive histological and/or bacteriological result) lesion at routine slaughter were disclosed. A case-control study design was used to construct an explanatory set of management factors associated with long-duration bTB herd breakdowns; with a case (n = 191) defined as an investigation into a breakdown of 365 days or longer. Purchase of infected animal(s) had the strongest association as the most likely source of infection for long-duration bTB herd breakdowns followed by badgers and then cattle-to-cattle contiguous herd spread. However, 73.5% (95% CI 61.1–85.9%) of the herd type contributing to the purchase of infection source were defined as beef fattening herds. This result demonstrates two subpopulations of prolonged bTB breakdowns, the first being beef fattening herds with main source continuous purchase of infected animals and a second group of primary production herds (dairy, beef cows and mixed) with risk from multiple sources.
Stone was a critical resource for prehistoric hunter-gatherers. Archaeologists, therefore, have long argued that these groups would actively have sought out stone of ‘high quality’. Although the defining of quality can be a complicated endeavour, researchers in recent years have suggested that stone with fewer impurities would be preferred for tool production, as it can be worked and used in a more controllable way. The present study shows that prehistoric hunter-gatherers at the Holocene site of Welling, in Ohio, USA, continuously selected the ‘purest’ stone for over 9000 years.
The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
BOUT++ is a 3D nonlinear finite-difference plasma simulation code, capable of solving quite general systems of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs), but targeted particularly on studies of the edge region of tokamak plasmas. BOUT++ is publicly available, and has been adopted by a growing number of researchers worldwide. Here we present improvements which have been made to the code since its original release, both in terms of structure and its capabilities. Some recent applications of these methods are reviewed, and areas of active development are discussed. We also present algorithms and tools which have been developed to enable creation of inputs from analytic expressions and experimental data, and for processing and visualisation of output results. This includes a new tool Hypnotoad for the creation of meshes from experimental equilibria. Algorithms have been implemented in BOUT++ to solve a range of linear algebraic problems encountered in the simulation of reduced Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and gyro-fluid models: A preconditioning scheme is presented which enables the plasma potential to be calculated efficiently using iterative methods supplied by the PETSc library (the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation) (Balay et al. 2014), without invoking the Boussinesq approximation. Scaling studies are also performed of a linear solver used as part of physics-based preconditioning to accelerate the convergence of implicit time-integration schemes.
Intramuscular haemangiomas of the digastric muscle are often misdiagnosed due to their low incidence and non-specific manifestation. Only two out of six previously reported cases were diagnosed correctly before excision. Ultrasound may not reveal their vascularity, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy is unhelpful as it reveals only blood.
A case of intramuscular haemangioma of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle is described. Previously reported cases are reviewed. Investigations used to diagnose the lesions and reasons for their common failure are discussed.
Core-needle biopsy led to the correct histological diagnosis, and magnetic resonance imaging precisely located the lesion within the digastric muscle.
Core-needle biopsy was safely used in the diagnosis of an intramuscular haemangioma. The combination of core-needle biopsy and meticulous review of magnetic resonance imaging enables accurate diagnosis pre-operatively.
As part of the requirements of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Canada has been investigating the genetic diversity of its native equine and pony populations. Along with examining four indigenous Canadian equine populations (Canadian horse, Lac La Croix pony, Newfoundland pony and Sable Island population), another 10 Mountain and Moorland, three Nordic, four horse and two feral equine populations (thought to have influenced some pony breeds) were also investigated. In total, 821 individuals were genotyped at 38 microsatellite loci. Results of the analysis of molecular variance indicated that 13.3% of genetic diversity was explained by breed differences, whereas 84.6% and 2.1% of diversity came from within and among individuals, respectively. The average effective number of alleles and allelic richness was the lowest in the Eriskay (2.51 and 3.98) and Lac La Croix (2.83 and 4.01) populations, whereas it was highest in the New Forest (4.31 and 6.01) and Welsh (4.33 and 5.87) breeds, followed closely by the Newfoundland-CDN (4.23 and 5.86) population. Expected heterozygosities varied from 0.61 in the Lac La Croix to 0.74 in the Welsh and in Newfoundland. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.57 in the Exmoor and 0.58 in the Sable Island herd to 0.77 in the Kerry Bog and 0.76 in the New Forest breeds. Structure and admixture analyses revealed that the most likely number of clusters was 21, although some substructure was also observed when K = 16, compared with the 24 predefined populations. Information gathered from this study should be combined with other available phenotypic and pedigree data to develop, or amend, a suitable conservation strategy for all populations examined.
The target adopted by world leaders of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 was not met but this stimulated a new suite of biodiversity targets for 2020 adopted by the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in October 2010. Indicators will be essential for monitoring progress towards these targets and the CBD will be defining a suite of relevant indicators, building on those developed for the 2010 target. Here we argue that explicitly linked sets of indicators offer a more useful framework than do individual indicators because the former are easier to understand, communicate and interpret to guide policy. A Response-Pressure-State-Benefit framework for structuring and linking indicators facilitates an understanding of the relationships between policy actions, anthropogenic threats, the status of biodiversity and the benefits that people derive from it. Such an approach is appropriate at global, regional, national and local scales but for many systems it is easier to demonstrate causal linkages and use them to aid decision making at national and local scales. We outline examples of linked indicator sets for humid tropical forests and marine fisheries as illustrations of the concept and conclude that much work remains to be done in developing both the indicators and the causal links between them.
To evaluate patient satisfaction and symptom improvement following treatment of Ménière's disease with the Meniett® device.
Retrospective, questionnaire-based audit and analysis of unilateral Ménière's disease patients’ records, following on from a previous study from our departments on intra-tympanic gentamicin for Ménière's disease, using the Vertigo Symptom Scale and Glasgow Benefit Inventory as outcome measures.
Of 33 consecutive patients treated with the Meniett® device for four to six weeks, 30 responded to the questionnaires (90.9 per cent). Respondents’ mean Vertigo Symptom Scale score was 0.7 (range 0–2.1), and their mean Glasgow Benefit Inventory general subscale score was 24.1. Nineteen (63.3 per cent) patients felt that the device had alleviated their vertigo and tinnitus.
This is the first UK study of the effectiveness of the Meniett® device in treating Ménière's disease. It shows that the Meniett® device is a well tolerated, useful and minimally invasive means of treating Ménière's disease after medical treatment has failed, and before more potentially cochleo- and vestibulo-toxic therapies and invasive procedures are utilised.
1. Meningococcal cerebrospinal meningitis in the Sudan does not materially differ in its progress and end result from the disease as found in Europe.
2. There is no racial peculiarity in response to infection or to chemotherapy.
3. There is no sex or age peculiarity in incidence. Both sexes and all ages respond to chemotherapy.
4. Sulphapyridine is superior to sulphanilamide in the shortening of invalidism and in the prevention of complications.
5. Oral administration of sulphapyridine is in the majority of cases as effective as intramuscular.
6. Dosage is related to the clinical stage of the disease, and to its duration before treatment. An initial dose of 2·5 g. sulphapyridine for adults, and 1·0—1·5 g. for children is prescribed for the serious case, with subsequent gradation of treatment to provide a maintenance dose.
7. Treatment, if it is going to give a good result, will produce a response within 24 hr. It need not be prolonged beyond 7 days. The third, fourth and seventh days of treatment are critical.
To present a previously unreported cause of frontal mucocele.
A patient presented with a frontal mucocele and maxillary sinusitis. Computed tomography revealed an ectopic maxillary tooth as the cause of her signs and symptoms. Removal of the tooth by a Caldwell–Luc procedure facilitated resolution of the mucocele. Conventional treatment of mucoceles by endoscopic sinus surgery, and other rhinological sequelae of ectopic teeth, are considered.
This is the first documented case of an ectopic tooth causing a frontal mucocele, and demonstrates how effectively the patient's symptoms resolved on removal of the tooth.
The low-cycle fatigue behavior of a cobalt-based superalloy was studied in situ using neutron–diffraction experiments. The alloy exhibited stress-induced formation of a hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) phase within its parent face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase at ambient temperature under strain-controlled fatigue conditions with a total strain range, Δε=2.5%. The (101) hcp peak was first observed during the 12th fatigue cycle under the given conditions following a period during which no hcp phase was detected. Subsequently, the intensity of the hcp peaks increased as fatigue progressed. Furthermore, within a single fatigue cycle, the intensity of the (101) hcp peak decreased during the compression half-cycle and increased again when the specimen was subjected to a subsequent tensile strain. The result suggests that the fcc to hcp transformation is partially reversible within one fatigue cycle.
To ascertain whether local anaesthetic use is of clinical benefit in nasal surgery, a prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial of topical bupivacaine on post-operative pain in patients packed after bilateral nasal surgery was carried out. Each patient received a bupivacaine-soaked and a saline-soaked Merocel pack, thereby acting as their own control. Power analysis ascertained the number of patients required to enter the trial to detect a statistically significant difference in pain. Fifty-seven patients completed the trial. Visual analogue scales determined the level of post-operative pain at different time points in each nostril. Less pain was demonstrated in nostrils containing bupivacaine-soaked packs compared with saline-soaked packs at two hours (p < 0.0001), four hours (p = 0.0183) and six hours (p = 0.0476) post-operatively. Although not statistically significant, less pain was noted on pack removal on the local anaesthetic sides. These results provide clinical-based evidence for the use of bupivacaine as a local anaesthetic in reducing pain following nasal surgery with packing.
Patients with unilateral, right frontal lobe damage (N = 13)
and matched controls (N = 20) performed a task of lexical
ambiguity resolution in order to explore the contribution of right frontal
regions to lexical-semantic priming. Word triplets consisting of balanced
homographs were presented to participants in four conditions:
concordant, discordant, neutral, and
unrelated. Controls demonstrated facilitation for concordant
meanings of homographs, as evidenced by their faster reaction times in the
concordant relative to the unrelated (baseline) condition, as well as a
lack of facilitation for the discordant meaning relative to the neutral
and concordant conditions. Results in patients with right frontal lobe
damage differed depending on the site of the lesion. Patients with lesions
restricted to the right medial frontal lobe only showed facilitation in
the neutral condition, while those with lesions encroaching upon the right
dorsolateral region demonstrated facilitation of both discordant and
concordant meanings relative to the baseline condition. These results
support a role for the right frontal lobe in semantic priming and suggest
possible specialization within the right prefrontal cortex for the
processing of lexical-semantic information. (JINS, 2005,