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The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
For every mill the ideal roll can be considered as one that can be used in a mill stand indefinitely. Unfortunately for the roll user, such ideal rolls do not exist. One major reason for work roll changes (planned or unplanned) is “wear”. In the context of cold rolling and temper rolling, “wear” primarily refers to loss of roughness and/or surface texture. Another limitation to roll performance is the fact that mill incidents – minor as well as major incidents – inflict damage on the work rolls, requiring redressing in the roll shop. If a major defect is present in a forged roll, e.g. due to a mill incident, catastrophic roll failure may occur in a violent, explosive manner. Improvement of the value-in-use of a work roll implies a superior wear resistance, a superior damage resistance, and elimination of the safety risks associated with explosive roll failures. In order to deal with this in a concerted R&D approach, a consortium of two roll users in the steel industry, a leading roll manufacturer, a high-tech supplier of roll damage detection equipment, and specialised research institutes have joined forces. Cold rolling trials have been performed, using pilot mills as well as industrial mills, with both novel forged HSS work rolls and conventional forged 3–5%Cr steel work rolls. Separate trials have been designed to focus on either the aspect of roughness evolution or damage resistance. Complementary data from various laboratory tests and industrial mill and roll shop data have been collected. Models have been developed for damage evolution in a roll, and for roughness evolution of the roll surface. In addition, novel non-destructive detection systems and sensors have been designed and tested. This paper provides a concise overview of the results achieved.
Previously published articles have shown that co-implanted fluorine reduces transient enhanced diffusion of boron. However, it is not yet elucidated whether this effect is due to interaction of fluorine with point-defects or boron atoms. In this work, we have used boron redistribution in a shallow Delta-doped Si structures in order to get some insights into the role of fluorine in the boron diffusion. The structures consisted of 3 boron-doped layers separated by 40nm-thick undoped silicon. The samples were given to Ge preamorphization and F co-implant. SIMS depth profiling was used to analyse boron redistribution after annealing. The results we obtained strongly suggest that fluorine is not interacting with point-defects. The reduction in boron TED is most probably due to boron-fluorine interaction.
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