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This study assessed the impact of improved green fodder production activities on technical efficiency (TE) of dairy farmers in climate vulnerable landscapes of central India. We estimated stochastic production frontiers, considering potential self-selection bias stemming from both observable and unobservable factors in adoption of fodder interventions at farm level. The empirical results show that TE for treated group ranges from 0.55 to 0.59 and that for control ranges from 0.41 to 0.48, depending on how biases are controlled. Additionally, the efficiency levels of both adopters and non-adopters would be underestimated if the selectivity bias is not appropriately accounted. As the average TE is consistently higher for adopter farmers than the control group, promoting improved fodder cultivation would increase input use efficiency, especially in resource-deprived small holder dairy farmers in the semi-arid tropics.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Thin films of 3 different thicknesses each of Ni83.2Fe3.3Mo13.5 and Ni83.1Fe6.0Mo10.9alloys have been grown using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique. Our motivation is to investigate the magnetic properties of a few nm thick Ni alloys with mostly Mo (4d element) addition since the corresponding soft ferromagnetic bulk alloys have shown very small coercivity of ˜ 0.1 Oe. Detailed structural characterization has been undertaken before probing the magnetic properties. Arc melted alloy buttons after homogenization are used directly as targets for the deposition. Films were deposited on single crystal Sapphire (0001) substrates using excimer laser. The structural characterization has been done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the films are highly textured and grown along  direction of the alloys. They have high lattice strain which makes the films highly resistive and the resistance decreases with increasing thickness. The EDS measurements, using Scanning electron microscope (SEM), indicate that the compositions of the films are almost the same as those of the targets. Thickness, roughness, and density gradients are estimated using XRR measurements. The thinner films have higher roughness compared to the thicker ones for both the compositions. The films have density gradient across their thickness. The bottommost low density layer has high roughness which is supposed to be the result of initial non uniform coverage of the substrate. The density of the middle layer, having the lowest roughness, is approximately near the bulk value and it increases with increasing film thickness. The change in density is not due to the variation of composition; instead it is due to the variation of void densities in the layers. The topmost layer, having the lowest density and the highest roughness, is interpreted as a porous layer which is also evident from the AFM images.
Pressure-induced structural aspects of NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type (B2) structure in MgX [X = S, Se, Te] semiconductors are presented. An effective interionic interaction potential (EIOP) with long range Coulomb, van der Waals (vdW) interaction and the short-range repulsive interaction upto second-neighbor ions within the Hafemeister and Flygare approach is developed. Particular attention is devoted to evaluate the vdW coefficients following the variational method, as both the cation and the anion are polarizable. Our result on vast volume discontinuity in pressure volume phase diagram identifies the structural phase transition from B1 to B2 structure. The estimated value of the phase transition pressure (Pt) is consistent with results previously published. The variations of elastic constants with pressure follow a systematic trend identical to that observed in others compounds of NaCl type structure family.
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