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A circularly polarized (CP) and high gain Microstrip antenna is designed in this paper using metamaterial concepts. The antenna, built on a metamaterial substrate, showed significant size reduction and less mutual coupling in an array compared with similar arrays on conventional substrates. Demonstrated to have left-handed magnetic characteristics, the methodology uses complementary split-ring resonators (SRRs) placed horizontally between the patch and the ground plane. In order to reduce mutual coupling in the array structure, hexagonal-SRRs are embedded between antenna elements. The procedure is shown to have great impact on the antenna performance specifically its bandwidth which is broadened from 400 MHz to 1.2 GHz for X-band and as well as its efficiency. The structure has also low loss and improved standing wave ratio and less mutual coupling. The results show that a reduction of 26.6 dB in mutual coupling is obtained between elements at the operation frequency of the array. Experimental data show a reasonably good agreement between simulation and measured results.
The plume images of the laser produced silver plasma in the absence and presence of 0.45 T transverse magnetic field has been investigated under vacuum ~10−4 torr and in air. An Nd:YAG laser (1.064 µm, 1.1 MW, 9 ns) with intensity ~1012 Wcm−2 was used to generate plasma. A CCD image capture system was used for plasma imaging to explore the plume. A magnetic probe was employed to measure the variation in internal magnetic field of plasma with as well as without 0.45 T external transverse magnetic field. The X-ray emission from plasma in both the cases (with and without B field) was also monitored using two PIN photodiodes filtered with 24 µm Cu and 24 µm Al. The plume images in both the cases were then correlated with the time resolved soft X-ray emission. It was found that the self generated magnetic field of the plasma increases in the presence of magnetic field. Plume images reveal that the confinement of the plume takes place in the presence of magnetic field both in the cases of air and vacuum. Jet and spikes like structures were also observed due to plasma instabilities. Lobe formation in the plume at latter stages of plasma evolution was more prominent in air than under vacuum. X-ray emission signals exhibited an enhancement in the emission under transverse magnetic field. An increased rate of recombination due to high density as a result of plasma confinement across the applied magnetic field was found to be the main reason behind emission enhancement.
We show that silicon acceptors can be neutralized in p-type GaAs: Si. SIMS analysis shows that the deuterium concentration closely follows the net acceptor concentration. Infrared absorption spectroscopy reveals lines at 2094.7cm-1 and 1514.5cm-1 in hydrogenated and deuterated samples respectively. The ratio r of the two frequencies is 1.383 indicating that the lines are related to hydrogen isotopes. The reduction of the intensity of the local vibrational mode (LVM) of SiAs after neutralization is consistent with the formation of SiAs-H bonds. From SIMS data, it is concluded that most of the hydrogen present in the passivated material is complexed with silicon. A microscopic model of the Si-H complex is proposed.
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