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Pseudorabies has become endemic and represents a widespread problem for pig production in the world, causing great economic losses associated with reproductive failure and neonatal mortality in the pig industry. Most diseases are the results of mutations of functional genes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the coding regions of the mediators of pro-inflammatory responses or other candidate genes in pigs could indicate their potential involvement in susceptibility or resistance to PrV (pseudorabies virus) infection. There have been no previous association studies with candidate host genes that may influence PrV phenotypic traits. In order to perform association studies to identify genes contributing to PrV phenotypes, the genotypes of five SNPs from four genes (IL10, CXCL12, BAT2 and EHMT2) were determined for 178 sow samples using a high throughput microarray-based methodology. PrV antibodies were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine whether there was an association between antibody levels and particular genotypes. The association between SNP genotypes and the PrV antibody levels were analysed using the Duncan method of one-way ANOVA procedure using the SAS (Statistical Analysis Systems) software package. The results showed that the glycoprotein E-ELISA antibody level of pigs with genotypes 11(AA) and 12(AG) was significantly higher than in pigs with genotype 22(GG) (P < 0.05) of SNP in the gene EHMT2-SNP2. The SNP of EHMT2 may be an effective potential tool to identify susceptible and resistant animals when used in conjunction with traditional selection methods.
The interaction of an Nd:YAG laser, operating at 532 nm with 40 ps pulse duration, with human teeth was studied. The results show that teeth were significantly modified at an energy fluence of about 11 J/cm2. Various surface morphologies of enamel and dentine were recorded. Features on enamel include crater (conical form) in the central part and cauliflower morphology at the periphery, whereas on dentine the crater looks like a stretched dome between sharp edges. The behavior of the enamel-dentine junction area showed different morphology with respect to both tooth enamel and dentine alone. Finally, the junction channel showed a removal of collagen fibers and the formation of a needle-like bottom structure. Generally, this investigation showed that the picosecond Nd:YAG laser can ablate a tooth surface practically instantaneously, implying that large tooth surfaces can be processed in short time.
The properties of beams of high energy protons accelerated during ultraintense, picosecond laser-irradiation of thin foil targets are investigated as a function of preplasma expansion at the target front surface. Significant enhancement in the maximum proton energy and laser-to-proton energy conversion efficiency is observed at optimum preplasma density gradients, due to self-focusing of the incident laser pulse. For very long preplasma expansion, the propagating laser pulse is observed to filament, resulting in highly uniform proton beams, but with reduced flux and maximum energy.
We analyze the results of a recent experiment performed at the PALS laboratory and concerning ablation pressure at 0.44 µm laser wavelength measured at irradiance up to 2 × 1014 W/cm2. Using the code “ATLANT,” we have performed two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics simulations. Results show that 2D effects did not affect the experiment and also give evidence of the phenomenon of delocalized absorption of laser light.
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