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The commons theory, first articulated by Elinor Ostrom, is increasingly used as a framework to understand and rethink the management and governance of many kinds of shared resources. These resources can include natural and digital properties, cultural goods, knowledge and intellectual property, and housing and urban infrastructure, among many others. In a world of increasing scarcity and demand - from individuals, states, and markets - it is imperative to understand how best to induce cooperation among users of these resources in ways that advance sustainability, affordability, equity, and justice. This volume reflects this multifaceted and multidisciplinary field from a variety of perspectives, offering new applications and extensions of the commons theory, which is as diverse as the scholars who study it and is still developing in exciting ways.
The transition from Parnell’s domination of Irish politics to the development and aftermath of the Irish revolution has been variously interpreted by influential mythographers, notably W. B. Yeats and Patrick Pearse. This essay takes a different angle, querying Conor Cruise O’Brien’s celebrated statement that Parnell ‘deviated into literature’, emphasizing the shifts of influence towards the agency of women’s political organizations, reasserting the importance of the conservative underpinning provided by the revolution in landownership, and questioning the influential but misplaced emphasis on Parnell’s supposed latter-day Fenian sympathies. Concerning the eventual outcome of the revolution, and the kind of Ireland that emerged, the result of the Treaty might be seen not only as consistent with Arthur Griffith’s long-term aims, but squarely in line with the kind of Home Rule Ireland outlined by Parnell to a confidant forty years before: ‘a small-c conservative government, backed by the Irish democracy and peasant proprietary, linked to the Empire by Crown and an imperial contribution, and with enough economic autonomy to protect and encourage Irish industries’. This was a far cry from the ideal nurtured by Pearse and many of the revolutionary generation, but it buttresses Parnell’s claim to be considered a maker of modern Ireland.
To understand increasing rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tennessee, we conducted testing, risk factor analysis and a nested case–control study among persons who use drugs. During June–October 2016, HCV testing with risk factor assessment was conducted in sexually transmitted disease clinics, family planning clinics and an addiction treatment facility in eastern Tennessee; data were analysed by using multivariable logistic regression. A nested case–control study was conducted to assess drug-using risks and behaviours among persons who reported intranasal or injection drug use (IDU). Of 4753 persons tested, 397 (8.4%) were HCV-antibody positive. HCV infection was significantly associated with a history of both intranasal and IDU (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 35.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 24.1–51.9), IDU alone (aOR 52.7, CI 25.3–109.9), intranasal drug use alone (aOR 2.6, CI 1.8–3.9) and incarceration (aOR 2.7, CI 2.0–3.8). By 4 October 2016, 574 persons with a reported history of drug use; 63 (11%) were interviewed further. Of 31 persons who used both intranasal and injection drugs, 26 (84%) reported previous intranasal drug use, occurring 1–18 years (median 5.5 years) before their first IDU. Our findings provide evidence that reported IDU, intranasal drug use and incarceration are independent indicators of risk for past or present HCV infection in the study population.
This paper describes the design and fabrication of a range of ‘gas cell’ microtargets produced by the Target Fabrication Group in the Central Laser Facility (CLF) for academic access experiments on the Orion laser facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The experiments were carried out by an academic consortium led by Imperial College London. The underlying target methodology was an evolution of a range of targets used for experiments on radiative shocks and involved the fabrication of a precision machined cell containing a number of apertures for interaction foils or diagnostic windows. The interior of the cell was gas-filled before laser irradiation. This paper details the assembly processes, thin film requirements and micro-machining processes needed to produce the targets. Also described is the implementation of a gas-fill system to produce targets that are filled to a pressure of 0.1–1 bar. The paper discusses the challenges that are posed by such a target.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
We characterise the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz. We combine repeated position-switched observations of the source G300.968+01.145 with a map of the same source in order to estimate the pointing reliability of the position-switched observations and, by extension, the MALT90 survey; we estimate our pointing uncertainty to be 8 arcsec. We model the two strongest sources of systematic gain variability as functions of elevation and time-of-day and quantify the remaining absolute flux uncertainty. Corrections based on these two variables reduce the scatter in repeated observations from 12%–25% down to 10%–17%. We find no evidence for intrinsic source variability in G300.968+01.145. For certain applications, the corrections described herein will be integral for improving the absolute flux calibration of MALT90 maps and other observations using the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Suboptimal vitamin D status among the South Asian UK population is widely reported; however, its impact on bone health is unclear. The aim of the present study was to conduct a comparative investigation of vitamin D status in postmenopausal South Asian (SA) and Caucasian (C) women and its relationship to parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration, biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone quality. A cross-sectional study of community-dwelling women aged 50–66 years was carried out. A total of sixty-six SA women of Pakistani origin and forty-two C women living in the same community were recruited. Fasting blood was taken for the measurement of vitamin D, PTH and biochemical markers of bone turnover, including type-1 collagen β C-telopeptide (βCTX), procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity. Bone quality was assessed using broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was significantly lower in the SA women than the C women (medians: SA 10·5 v. C 47·1 nmol/l; P < 0·001) This was associated with a significantly elevated serum PTH concentration in the SA group (medians: SA 7·3 v. C 4·5 pmol/l; P < 0·01). BAP activity was also significantly higher in the SA group, indicating elevated osteoblast activity and bone turnover (medians: SA 23·0 v. C 20·0 U/l; P < 0·05). No significant differences were observed between the two groups for P1NP, βCTX or BUA. Although the SA women had significantly higher serum PTH and lower 25(OH)D concentrations than C women, this was not associated with significantly higher markers of bone resorption, or reduced bone quality in the SA women.
A recent European Union Directive required member states to put monitoring and control programmes in place, of which vaccination is a central component. Live Salmonella vaccines generally confer better protection than killed vaccines, because the former stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Administering Salmonella bacteria orally to newly hatched chickens results in extensive gut colonization and a strong adaptive immune stimulus but broiler chickens are immunologically immature. However, colonization exerts a variety of rapid (within 24 h) protective effects. These include specific colonization-inhibition (competitive exclusion) in which the protective bacteria exert a profound resistance to establishment and colonization by other related bacteria. This is thought to be primarily a metabolic attribute of the vaccinating bacteria but may also involve competition for attachment sites. The presence of large numbers of bacteria originating from a live Salmonella vaccine in the intestine can also induce infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells into the intestinal wall, which confers resistance to invasion and systemic spread by virulent Salmonella strains. This opens new perspectives for vaccine usage in broilers, layers and breeding poultry but also in other animals which show increased susceptibility to infection because of their young age or for other reasons, such as oral chemoprophylaxis or chemotherapy, where the lack of established normal gut flora is an issue. We recommend that all live vaccines considered for oral administration should be tested for their ability to induce the two protective effects described above. Further developments in live Salmonella vaccines are, however, currently hindered by fears associated with the use and release of live vaccines which may be genetically modified.
An environmental surveillance programme was developed to determine whether water supplies could be a source of Burkholderia pseudomallei as noted during previous melioidosis outbreak investigations. Water supplies to communities in the three northern Australian jurisdictions (Western Australia, Northern Territory and Queensland) were sampled periodically during 2001 and 2002. Water and soil samples were collected from communities known to have had recent culture-positive melioidosis cases and nearby communities where no cases had been diagnosed. Clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei obtained from northern Australian patients during 2001 and 2002 were compared with the environmental B. pseudomallei isolates by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. B. pseudomallei was isolated from 11 distinct locations, all in the Northern Territory, seven of which were associated with culture-positive melioidosis cases (>1 case at three locations). Water was implicated as a possible environmental source of melioidosis in six locations. A variety of free-living amoebae including Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella spp. that are potential hosts to B. pseudomallei were recovered from environmental specimens. Culturable B. pseudomallei was not found to be widely dispersed in the environments sampled.
THIS lecture is named for George Walter Prothero (1848–1922), historian and editor: and one excuse for giving a lecture on W. B. Yeats to an audience of historians is that Yeats actually knew Prothero. They both sat on the Academic Commttee of the Royal Society of Literature and in 1912, after a meeting of this body, Yeats wrote to Lady Gregory:
We discuss substrate temperature ramping effects during chemical vapor deposition of aluminum on nucleation density, texture, surface roughness, and resistivity of the resulting films. Results from three different process protocols are presented. Ramping the temperature down during the deposition from 673 K resulted in a larger fraction of small nuclei compared to deposition at a constant temperature of 573 K. From among the protocols studied, the lowest surface roughness was obtained by initially depositing for a short time while ramping the temperature down from 673 K, followed by deposition at 573 K, compared to all the other films. The same process protocol resulted in the highest Al(111) texturing, highest reflectivity, and lowest resistivity.
Results from a statistically designed experiment studying the effects of initial substrate temperature (A), precursor pulse time (B), diluent gas flow rate (C), and their interactions on film properties of programmed rate chemical vapor deposited aluminum are presented. Deposition rate, reflectivity, absolute and normalized roughness, and grain orientation were the response variables investigated. A two level, three factor (23) full factorial experimental design was used. Five center cell replicates were used to estimate cell standard deviations. The experiments were conducted using tri-isobutyl aluminum (TIBA) as the precursor in a lowpressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) cold wall reactor. Effects were considered significant at the 95% confidence level. Initial substrate temperature (A) affected deposition rate and reflectivity. Diluent gas flow rate (C) affected deposition rate, normalized roughness and film texture. The precursor pulse time/diluent gas flow rate interaction (BC) affected film reflectivity and absolute surface roughness, while the initial substrate temperature/diluent gas flow rate interaction (AC) affected film texture.
CeO2 is nearly lattice matched to Si and has the CaF2 cubic structure thus it offers the potential for the epitaxial growth of an insulating film on Si. Laser ablation of a CeO2 target in an ultra high vacuum system was used for the deposition of single crystal CeO2. The effect of post growth thermal and rapid thermal annealing in O2, N2 and Ar atmosphere was found to have pronounced effects on the electrical properties measured by C-V and the optical properties measured by photoluminescence.
We report on our initial results for the growth of epitaxial Si on the deposited CeO2 using low pressure CVD. Both RHEED and TEM studies showed that single crystal epitaxial Si was deposited on CeO2. The details of the Si deposition on CeO2 films for potential of SOI (silicon on insulator) structures will be discussed.
A series of sol-gel derived PB(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) films, with various PbTiO3 contents, have been prepared on platinized Si wafers. The (l-x)PZN - xPT films fired to 700C became single phase perovskite for x > 0.7. In the PZN-0.1PT films, the films still contain pyrochlore phase at a firing temperature of 850C; the perovskite phase appeared at a firing temperature of 800C. The dielectric constant increased with increasing PT content, with a peak in dielectric constant at x = 0.8. PZN-PT films with x = 0.8 exhibited dielectric constant, dissipation factor, remanent polarization and coercive field values of 600, 0.10, 6 and 45 kV/cm respectively.