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Psychosocial stress in childhood and adolescence is linked to stress system dysregulation, although few studies have examined the relative impacts of parental harshness and parental disengagement. This study prospectively tested whether parental harshness and disengagement show differential associations with overall cortisol output in adolescence. Associations between overall cortisol output and adolescent mental health problems were tested concurrently. Adolescents from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) provided hair samples for cortisol assay at 15 years (N = 171). Caregivers reported on parental harshness and disengagement experiences at 1, 3, 5, 9, and 15 years, and adolescents reported at 15 years. Both parent and adolescent reported depressive and anxiety symptoms and antisocial behaviors at 15. Greater parental harshness from 1–15 years, and harshness reported at 15 years in particular, was associated with higher overall cortisol output at 15. Greater parental disengagement from 1–15 years, and disengagement at 1 year specifically, was associated with lower cortisol output. There were no significant associations between cortisol output and depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or antisocial behaviors. These results suggest that the unique variances of parental harshness and disengagement may have opposing associations with cortisol output at 15 years, with unclear implications for adolescent mental health.
One of the most important prognostic factors in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is the number of hospitalizations they need during their life. In this work we describe risk factors which determinate psychotic relapse.
Retrospective review of the clinical histories of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who needed hospitalization during the year 2008 using Hospital Ramon Cajal's history software. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software 15.0 version.
- Socio-demographic: We collected a total of 57 patients, 60% were men and 77,2% were single who lived with their families. 52,8% only had Primary education and 14% had been to University. 38,6% were pensioner and 12,3% workers.
- Risk factors: 54,4% had abandoned their medication, 7% had had recent modifications in their medication, and 35,1% received long acting antipsychotic. 42,1% were identified as substance users.
- 40,4% had been diagnosed with schizophrenia more than three years ago; 57,9% had had less than 3 previous hospitalizations, and 54,4% need hospitalization the previous year.
Male under 30 years old have more risk of needing more hospitalizations. The main risk factor for suffering new psychotic episodes is the medication nonadherence, modifying medication only causes new episodes in few patients. Patients receiving long-acting antipsychotic agents suffer less psychotic relapse. Substance abuse among schizophrenia patients is a major complicating factor since almost half of the hospitalizations are related to it.
Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are low molecular weight highly protonated aliphatic molecules that physiologically modulate NMDA, AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors and limbic dopaminergic neurotransmission. Previous studies had demonstrated that polyamine metabolism might be disrupted in schizophrenia, what could potentially be linked to glutamatergic dysfunction. In particular, polyamine levels in blood and fibroblast cultures from patients with schizophrenia had previously been found to be higher than in healthy controls. Indeed, a significant positive correlation between blood polyamine levels and severity of illness may exist.
In order to test potential differences in blood polyamine levels between drug-free schizophrenia in-patients (n = 12), and healthy controls (n = 26, blood donors), spermidine (spd), spermine (spm), and spermidine/spermine index (spd/spm) were determined using HPLC after dansylation.
No significant differences were found between groups (t = 0,974; df = 36; P = 0,337 for spd, t = l0, 52; df = 36; P = 0,959 for Spm, and, t = 0, 662; df = 36; P = 0,512 for spd/spm).
Though we couldn’t replicate previous findings suggesting disturbances in blood polyamine levels in schizophrenia, this issue may be a promising target. Future research should take into account possible factors such as sex, nutritional state, and stress.
Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders in which abnormal events occur during sleep, due to inappropriately timed activation of physiological systems.
we report the case of a 41-year-old female who has no psychiatric history. The patient went to emergency department because when she was starting to sleep, in the first state of sleep, she felts a sensation of paralysis in all her body, with incapacity for breathing, chest oppression and tactile hallucinations like something or someone was touching her entire body. Due to that, the patient awoke frightened, with high levels of anxiety, with heart palpitations, shortness of breath, trembling, choking feeling, sweating, nausea and fear of dying. When the patient arrived to the emergency department, she was suffering a panic attack, thinking that she could have some kind of neurological disease or she was suffering a heart attack. after treating the panic attack with 1 mg of lorazepam, all the symptoms subsided gradually.
in this case report, we present a patient with a new-onset parasomnia, with hypnagogic hallucinations and a panic attack at the awakening. It is known that stress factors are closely associated with parasomnias, as we can see in this case because the patient was moving and she was sleeping in a new place.
Parasomnias are very frequently present in general population and they can trigger intense anxiety status that can lead to panic attacks.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Hyperthyroidism may lead to high anxiety status, emotional lability, irritability, overactivity, exaggerated sensitivity to noise, and fluctuating mood, insomnia and hyporexia. in extreme cases, they may appear delusions and hallucinations as psychiatric symptoms.
we report the case of a 53-year-old female who was diagnosed of hyperthyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder. The patient went to emergency department because of high levels of anxiety, with heart palpitations, trembling, shortness of breath and nausea. She was presenting auditory hallucinations and delusions as psychiatric symptoms. an urgent thyroid profile was made and it was observed the next results: TSH < 0.005; T4:4; T3:21. Due to a severe thyroid malfunction, the patient was admitted and treated with antithyroid agent, improving the psychiatric and somatic symptoms.
in this case, a patient diagnosed of hyperthyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder presented very severe psychiatric symptoms, with hallucinations and delusions. These symptoms may be produced by primary psychiatric disorders, but is very important to look for thyroid alterations, because if they are the cause, the acute treatment of thyroid malfunction is the correct management of the patient.
Hyperthyroidism is very common in general population, being infradiagnosed most of times. in patient with anxiety or other psychiatric symptoms, it is very important to make a thyroid function tests before the diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. in extreme cases, hyperthyroidism status may lead to severe psychiatric and somatic complications.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a valid method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Recent studies regarding rCBF in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) reported heterogeneous results, but were limited with small sample size. Neuroimaging can help us in setting the diagnosis of illness, as well as in following the progress and finding more effective treatment for psychotic disorders.
To compare, baseline alterations of the rCBF using SPECT with psychopathological status in FEP during acute phase.
To investigate the changes of rCBF in patients with FEP during acute phase.
We conducted a study on 40 drug – naïve patients with FEP at acute phase of illness during their hospitalization at Zagreb University hospital centre. The diagnosis was confirmed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. rCBF was measured with SPECT and psychopathological status rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.
Our findings showed moderate to severe parieto-temporal perfusion deficits, mild to moderate parieto-fronto-temporal perfusion deficits or borderline perfusion deficits in all but one patient.
Our results showed alteration in rCBF at the beginning of the illness that indicate a biological market of psychotic disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Vaccination coverage (VC) against pertussis can increase when management practices and policies at primary care centres (PCCs) are reinforced. From 2011 to 2015, we performed a case–control study to evaluate VC among pertussis patients treated at PCCs in Barcelona, Spain. We recorded pertussis in patients from 8- to 16-year-olds at 52 PCCs. Pertussis cases had laboratory diagnostic and controls were healthy outpatients visiting the same facility for reasons other than cough. DTaP/dTap VC was recorded as either proper vaccination status (five doses recorded) or improper vaccination status (<5 doses recorded). We used a logistic regression model to estimate OR and 95% CI. We included 229 cases and 576 controls. VC was higher in cases (mean 5.01, s.e.: 0.57) than in controls (4.89, s.e.: 0.73). Around 69% of the cases had received DTaP primary immunisation after 2–5 years and 31.4% of cases had the dTap booster immunisation after 7–10 years. The 87% of children 5–9 years were properly vaccinated. We found no protection from becoming ill among properly vaccinated children (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.22–2.85). The highest VC was observed in patients with confirmed pertussis, which was likely due to a more exhaustive follow-up of the VC in these patients. Being properly vaccinated against pertussis will probably not increase VC.
This work shows the electrochemical study of nickel (Ni) and TiC/Ni composite immersed in synthetic seawater. In order to characterize the corrosion process, polarization curves (PC) were carried out. All electrochemical measures were made under static conditions, room temperature, atmospheric pressure and 24 hours exposure time. An electrochemical cell with a typical three-electrode array was used. Effect of TiC as reinforcement into the Ni matrix was evaluated. According PC results, it is possible to point out that the corrosion rate (CR) of the TiC/Ni composite was higher than Ni corrosion rate. The obtained results indicate that the corrosion process of both materials is of mixed type, that is to say a process of transfer of load influenced by a mechanism of mass transfer. Observations through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that mechanism of corrosion was cells of differential aeration (difference of concentration of oxygen). The corrosion morphology was localized type (pits and crevice).
Between 2008 and 2010, 27 acoustic tags were applied to various age and reproductive classes of grey whales in Laguna San Ignacio, Mexico, a part of the Biosphere Reserve ‘El Vizcaino’. Besides previously described S1 and S3 calls, two additional calls were identified: the impulsive S8 call and the slightly frequency-modulated S9 call. These two additional S8 and S9 calls are by far the most common grey whale sounds detected on tags, even though contemporary bottom-mounted acoustic recordings also collected from the lagoon in 2008 yielded no S8 or S9 calls. The new S8 and old S3 calls display similar spectral maxima, even though the S3 is a frequency-modulated harmonic call and the S8 is a broadband impulsive call. This spectral analysis provides evidence that these new call types are not artefacts arising from mechanical vibration or flow noise.
In a 1-year survey at a university hospital we found that 20·6% (81/392) of patients with antibiotic associated diarrohea where positive for C. difficile. The most common PCR ribotypes were 012 (14·8%), 027 (12·3%), 046 (12·3%) and 014/020 (9·9). The incidence rate was 2·6 cases of C. difficile infection for every 1000 outpatients.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown that brain abnormalities in psychosis might be progressive during the first years of illness. We sought to determine whether first-episode psychosis (FEP) subjects show progressive regional grey matter (GM) changes compared with controls, and whether those changes are associated with diagnosis, illness course or antipsychotic (AP) use.
Thirty-two subjects with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FESZ), 24 patients with first-episode affective psychoses (FEAP) and 34 controls recruited using a population-based design underwent structural MRI scanning at baseline and at a 5-year follow-up. Regional GM volumes were assessed with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Patients were treated at community settings, and about half of them remained mainly untreated.
No significant progressive changes in GM regional volumes were observed in either the FESZ or FEAP group overall. However, FESZ subjects with a non-remitting course showed GM decrements in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula relative to remitted FESZ subjects. Non-remitted FEAP subjects exhibited a GM decrease in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) bilaterally in comparison to remitted FEAP subjects. Among FESZ subjects, AP use was associated with regional GM decrements in the right insula and increments in the cerebellum.
Our results suggest that the progression of brain abnormalities in FEP subjects is restricted to those with a poor outcome and differs between diagnosis subgroups. AP intake is associated with a different pattern of GM reductions over time.
It has been an increase on the number of concrete structures with corrosion induced damage in Mexico in recent years. It is also well known that cathodic protection (CP) is the only method that stops corrosion in an efficient way. Since the 1990’s Florida and other USA states have been installing in concrete pile substructures, in bridges and piers, a three part hybrid galvanic CP system. This hybrid galvanic CP system includes a thermal sprayed part (located at the aerial zone of the pile), a zinc mesh encapsulated in mortar and inside a glass fiber jacket (located at the change in ties zone), and a submerged zinc bulk anode (in the submerged zone). From a previous investigation performed by the present authors, it has been found that the mortar inside the fiberglass form may decrease the mesh anode activation and thus decrease the CP system efficiency. Therefore, this investigation includes an evaluation of different additions placed in mortar to increase its electrical and ionic conductivity to increase the efficiency of the entire hybrid system. Additions include carbon, zinc and alumina powders, and this investigation presents preliminary experimental results obtained from the tested mortars (i.e. mortar physical characterization: electrical resistivity, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and total void content).
Neurodevelopmental alterations have been described inconsistently in psychosis probably because of lack of standardization among studies. The aim of this study was to conduct the first longitudinal and population-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the presence and size of the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and adhesio interthalamica (AI) in a large sample of patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP).
FEP patients (n=122) were subdivided into schizophrenia (n=62), mood disorders (n=46) and other psychosis (n=14) groups and compared to 94 healthy next-door neighbour controls. After 13 months, 80 FEP patients and 52 controls underwent a second MRI examination.
We found significant reductions in the AI length in schizophrenia FEP in comparison with the mood disorders and control subgroups (longer length) at the baseline assessment, and no differences in any measure of the CSP. By contrast, there was a diagnosis×time interaction for the CSP length, with a more prominent increase for this measure in the psychosis group. There was an involution of the AI length over time for all groups but no diagnosis×time interaction.
Our findings suggest that the CSP per se may not be linked to the neurobiology of emerging psychotic disorders, although it might be related to the progression of the disease. However, the fact that the AI length was shown to be shorter at the onset of the disorder supports the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia and indicates that an alteration in this grey matter junction may be a risk factor for developing psychosis.
Both background rotation and small depths are said to enforce the two-dimensionality of flows. In the current paper, we describe a systematic study of the two-dimensionality of a shallow monopolar vortex subjected to background rotation. Using a perturbation analysis of the Navier–Stokes equations for small aspect ratio (with the fluid depth and a typical radial length scale of the vortex), we found nine different regimes in the parameter space where the flow is governed to lowest order by different sets of equations. From the properties of these sets of equations, it was determined that the flow can be considered as quasi-two-dimensional in only five of the nine regimes. The scaling of the velocity components as given by these sets of equations was compared with results from numerical simulations to find the actual boundaries of the different regimes in the parameter space (), where is the Ekman boundary layer thickness and is the equivalent boundary layer thickness for a monopolar vortex without background rotation. Even though background rotation and small depths do promote the two-dimensionality of flows independently, the combination of these two characteristics does not necessarily have that same effect.
The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings, including dispersion and deposition events, short- and long-term contaminant redistribution following deposition events, and potential countermeasures or remediation efforts for reducing human exposures and doses. The Working Group has developed three modeling exercises, which are designed to permit intercomparison of model predictions and, in one case, comparison of model predictions with measurements. This paper describes the scenarios and provides comparisons of initial modeling results. Reasons for similarities and discrepancies among model predictions are discussed in terms of the modeling approaches, models, and parameter values used by different assessors. Preliminary conclusions emphasize the value of explaining individual approaches and the importance of understanding the effects of different assumptions and parameter values on the modeling results.