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This article will suggest that scholars have overlooked a model plausibly lurking in the background of Col 2:15 which parallels the triumphal death of Christ: namely, the crucifixion of Regulus. Regulus was a general who achieved a near-mythic status during the First Punic War by his sacrificial death, in which his perseverance on the gibbet was seen as even greater than riding in the victor’s car. Tertullian credited Regulus as having set the precedent for enduring the torments of the cross, while others declared him as having overcome through death not only his human foes but also Lady Fortune. Regulus’ story enjoyed so much widespread popularity it was admitted in the curriculum of Roman schools by the middle of the first century CE. Because Regulus’ epic contains low-hanging fruit, ripe for comparison with Christ’s crucifixion, Christians drew upon the story of Regulus from at least as early as Tertullian, Minucius Felix, Arnobius, and Augustine. Nevertheless, scholars have overlooked the possible parallels with Regulus’ story and Christ’s triumphal death in Col 2:15. I will first provide a composite depiction of Regulus’ military life and sacrificial death along with its reported ramifications in order to tease out similarities and differences with Col 2:15 and finally conclude with comments concerning the significance of including the legend as additional background for the verse. In short, I will propose that reading Regulus’ story in comparison with Col 2:15 supports an anti-imperial and/or a supra-imperial reading of the letter.
Biologic asymmetry is present in all bilaterally symmetric organisms as a result of normal developmental instability. However, fossilized organisms, which have undergone distortion due to burial, may have additional asymmetry as a result of taphonomic processes. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the magnitude of shape variation resulting from taphonomy on vertebrate bone using a novel application of fluctuating asymmetry. We quantified the amount of total variance attributed to asymmetry in a taphonomically distorted fossil taxon and compared it with that of three extant taxa. The fossil taxon had an average of 27% higher asymmetry than the extant taxa. In spite of the high amount of taphonomic input, the major axes of shape variation were not greatly altered by removal of the asymmetric component of shape variation. This presents the possibility that either underlying biologic trends drive the principal directions of shape change irrespective of asymmetric taphonomic distortion or that the symmetric taphonomic component is large enough that removing only the asymmetric component is inadequate to restore fossil shape. Our study is the first to present quantitative data on the relative magnitude of taphonomic shape change and presents a new method to further explore how taphonomic processes impact our interpretation of the fossil record.
We report the results of Long Baseline Array observations made in 2001 of ten southern sources proposed by Mattox et al. as counterparts to EGRET >100 MeV gamma-ray sources. Source structures are compared with published data where available and possible superluminal motions identified in several cases. The associations are examined in the light of Fermi observations, indicating that the confirmed counterparts tend to have radio properties consistent with other identifications, including flat radio spectral index, high brightness temperature, greater radio variability, and higher core dominance.
We present multi–epoch VLBI observations of the methanol and water masers in the high–mass star formation region G 339.884−1.259, made using the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA). Our sub–milliarcsecond precision measurements trace the proper motions of individual maser features in the plane of the sky. When combined with the direct line–of–sight radial velocity (vlsr), these measure the 3 D gas kinematics of the associated high–mass star formation region, allowing us to probe the dynamical processes to within 1000 AU of the core.
Observations at low frequencies (<8GHz) are dominated by distinct direction dependent ionospheric propagation errors, which place a very tight limit on the angular separation of a suitable phase referencing calibrator and astrometry. To increase the capability for high precision astrometric measurements an effective calibration strategy of the systematic ionospheric propagation effects that is widely applicable is required. The MultiView technique holds the key to the compensation of atmospheric spatial-structure errors, by using observations of multiple calibrators and two dimensional interpolation. In this paper we present the first demonstration of the power of MultiView using three calibrators, several degrees from the target, along with a comparative study of the astrometric accuracy between MultiView and phase-referencing techniques. MultiView calibration provides an order of magnitude improvement in astrometry with respect to conventional phase referencing, achieving ~100micro-arcseconds astrometry errors in a single epoch of observations, effectively reaching the thermal noise limit.
We present the results from the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) observations of the ground- and excited-state OH masers at high resolutions towards the massive star-forming region G351.417+0.645 in 2012. We obtain the most accurate spatial gradient of magnetic fields at ground state transitions and verify the reliability of magnetic field strengths measured from previous lower resolution observations. In comparison with previous LBA observations in 2001 at 6.0 GHz, we identified several matched Zeeman pairs. We found that the OH maser features have no significant change of magnetic field strengths and directions with small internal proper motions, implying quite stable physical conditions. Additionally, we found that 1665- and 6035-MHz OH maser features reveal the same trend of reversal of magnetic fields. Moreover, we also analyzed the physical conditions at different locations from the coincidence of different OH maser transitions based on current OH maser models.
We report on the astrometric registration of VLBI images of the SiO and H2O masers in OH 231.8+4.2, the iconic Proto-Planetary Nebula also known as the Calabash nebula, using the KVN and Source/Frequency Phase Referencing. This, for the first time, robustly confirms the alignment of the SiO masers, close to the AGB star, which drives the bi-lobe structure with the water masers in the out-flow.
Throughout the late Quaternary, the Sahul (Pleistocene Australia–New Guinea) vertebrate fauna was dominated by a diversity of large mammals, birds, and reptiles, commonly referred to as megafauna. Since ca. 450–400Ka, approximately 88 species disappeared in Sahul, including kangaroos exceeding 200kg in size, wombat-like animals the size of hippopotamuses, flightless birds, and giant monitor lizards that were likely venomous. Ongoing debates over the primary cause of these extinctions have typically favored climate change or human activities. Improving our understanding of the population biology of extinct megafauna as more refined paleoenvironmental data sets become available will assist in identifying their potential vulnerabilities. Here, we apply a multiproxy approach to analyze fossil teeth from deposits dated to the middle and late Pleistocene at Cuddie Springs in southeastern Australia, assessing relative aridity via oxygen isotopes as well as vegetation and megafaunal diets using both carbon isotopes and dental microwear texture analyses. We report that the Cuddie Springs middle Pleistocene fauna was largely dominated by browsers, including consumers of C4 shrubs, but that by late Pleistocene times the C4 dietary component was markedly reduced. Our results suggest dietary restriction in more arid conditions. These dietary shifts are consistent with other independently derived isotopic data from eggshells and wombat teeth that also suggest a reduction in C4 vegetation after ~45 Ka in southeastern Australia, coincident with increasing aridification through the middle to late Pleistocene. Understanding the ecology of extinct species is important in clarifying the primary drivers of faunal extinction in Sahul. The results presented here highlight the potential impacts of aridification on marsupial megafauna. The trend to increasingly arid conditions through the middle to late Pleistocene (as identified in other paleoenvironmental records and now also observed, in part, in the Cuddie Springs sequence) may have stressed the most vulnerable animals, perhaps accelerating the decline of late Pleistocene megafauna in Australia.
The existing paleoenvironmental data from the Australian arid zone lack sensitivity and come from only a few sites. Macrofossils and pollen from four dated middens of the stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) were analyzed from two sites in Western Australia. Animal and plant macrofossil remains were well preserved and provided evidence of change in species distribution within the last 1150 yr. Brush-tail possum and golden bandicoot have contracted their ranges in the recent past, possibly since the introduction of cats into Australia. An undescribed lacewing was also a significant find. Pollen preserved in parts of the same midden and in middens from different sites indicates that records are sensitive to the composition of the local vegetation when the midden was built. Pollen spectra are quite different from playa lakes, which record largely regional vegetation. Pollen preserved in the fecal pellets, desiccated urine, and grass mat nesting material provided similar information but some differences were apparent, suggesting dietary preferences were reflected in the fecal component. The pollen record suggested a trend to less-wooded vegetation cover in central Australia between 900 and 300 yr B.P.
The Zadko telescope is a 1 m f/4 Cassegrain telescope, situated in the state of Western Australia about 80-km north of Perth. The facility plays a niche role in Australian astronomy, as it is the only meter class facility in Australia dedicated to automated follow-up imaging of alerts or triggers received from different external instruments/detectors spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the location of the facility at a longitude not covered by other meter class facilities provides an important resource for time critical projects. This paper reviews the status of the Zadko facility and science projects since it began robotic operations in March 2010. We report on major upgrades to the infrastructure and equipment (2012–2014) that has resulted in significantly improved robotic operations. Second, we review the core science projects, which include automated rapid follow-up of gamma ray burst (GRB) optical afterglows, imaging of neutrino counterpart candidates from the ANTARES neutrino observatory, photometry of rare (Barbarian) asteroids, supernovae searches in nearby galaxies. Finally, we discuss participation in newly commencing international projects, including the optical follow-up of gravitational wave (GW) candidates from the United States and European GW observatory network and present first tests for very low latency follow-up of fast radio bursts. In the context of these projects, we outline plans for a future upgrade that will optimise the facility for alert triggered imaging from the radio, optical, high-energy, neutrino, and GW bands.
The first observations by a worldwide network of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors offer a unique opportunity for the astronomical community. At design sensitivity, these facilities will be able to detect coalescing binary neutron stars to distances approaching 400 Mpc, and neutron star–black hole systems to 1 Gpc. Both of these sources are associated with gamma-ray bursts which are known to emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Gravitational wave detections provide the opportunity for ‘multi-messenger’ observations, combining gravitational wave with electromagnetic, cosmic ray, or neutrino observations. This review provides an overview of how Australian astronomical facilities and collaborations with the gravitational wave community can contribute to this new era of discovery, via contemporaneous follow-up observations from the radio to the optical and high energy. We discuss some of the frontier discoveries that will be made possible when this new window to the Universe is opened.
We are undertaking an observational program using the ATCA to monitor the intraday variability (IDV) of a sample of sources at 4.8 and 8.6 GHz. The sources were selected to include the known strong southern IDV sources plus a number of sources whose IDV was recently discovered. The present monitoring program will extend over a full year in order to search for any annual cycle that may be present in the long-term IDV characteristics of these sources. In this paper we discuss the observing strategy and data analysis, and present the first results from our observations.
The future of centimetre and metre-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries that will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio facility. Most of the key science for the SKA will be addressed through large-area imaging of the Universe at frequencies from a few hundred MHz to a few GHz. The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a technology demonstrator aimed in the mid-frequency range, and achieves instantaneous wide-area imaging through the development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP an unprecedented synoptic telescope that will make substantial advances in SKA key science. ASKAP will be located at the Murchison Radio Observatory in inland Western Australia, one of the most radio-quiet locations on the Earth and one of two sites selected by the international community as a potential location for the SKA. In this paper, we outline an ambitious science program for ASKAP, examining key science such as understanding the evolution, formation and population of galaxies including our own, understanding the magnetic Universe, revealing the transient radio sky and searching for gravitational waves.
We are developing a purely commensal survey experiment for fast (<5 s) transient radio sources. Short-timescale transients are associated with the most energetic and brightest single events in the Universe. Our objective is to cover the enormous volume of transients parameter space made available by ASKAP, with an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and field of view. Fast timescale transients open new vistas on the physics of high brightness temperature emission, extreme states of matter and the physics of strong gravitational fields. In addition, the detection of extragalactic objects affords us an entirely new and extremely sensitive probe on the huge reservoir of baryons present in the IGM. We outline here our approach to the considerable challenge involved in detecting fast transients, particularly the development of hardware fast enough to dedisperse and search the ASKAP data stream at or near real-time rates. Through CRAFT, ASKAP will provide the testbed of many of the key technologies and survey modes proposed for high time resolution science with the SKA.
In the present study we investigate the dynamics of initially spherical capsules (made from elastic membranes obeying the strain-hardening Skalak or the strain-softening neo-Hookean law) in strong planar extensional flows via numerical computations. To achieve this, we develop a three-dimensional spectral boundary element algorithm for membranes with shearing and area-dilatation tensions in Stokes flow. The main attraction of this approach is that it exploits all the benefits of the spectral methods (i.e. high accuracy and numerical stability) but without creating denser systems. To achieve continuity of the interfacial geometry and its derivatives at the edges of the spectral elements during the interfacial deformation, a membrane-based interfacial smoothing is developed, via a Hermitian-like interpolation, for both the interfacial shape and the membrane elastic forces. Our numerical results show that no critical flow rate exists for both Skalak and neo-Hookean capsules in the moderate and strong planar extension flows considered in the present study. As the flow rate increases, both capsules reach elongated ellipsoidal steady-state configurations; the cross-section of the Skalak capsule preserves its elliptical shape, while the neo-Hookean capsule becomes more and more lamellar. The curvature at the pointed edges of these elongated steady-state shapes shows a very fast increase with the flow rate. The large interfacial deformations are accompanied with the development of strong membrane tensions especially for the strain-hardening Skalak capsule; the computed increase of the membrane tensions with the flow rate or the shape extension can be used to predict rupture of a specific membrane (with known lytic tension) due to excessive tensions. The type of the experiment imposed on the capsule as well as the applied flow rate affect dramatically the time evolution of the capsule edges owing to the interaction of the hydrodynamic forces with the membrane tensions; when a spherical Skalak capsule is let to deform in a strong flow, very large edge curvatures (with respect to the steady-state value) are developed during the transient evolution.
The insulin-independent and combined effects of fatty acids (FA; linoleic and oleic acids) and insulin in modulating lipid accumulation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated using a novel protocol avoiding the effects of a complex hormone ‘induction’ mixture. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) plus serum (control) or in DMEM plus either 0.3 mmol/l linoleic or oleic acids with 0.3 mmol/l FA-free bovine serum albumin in the presence or absence of insulin. Cells were cultured for 4 to 8 days and cell number, lipid accumulation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) protein expression were determined. Cell number appeared to be decreased in comparison with control cultures. In both oleic acid and linoleic acid-treated cells, notably in the absence (and presence) of insulin, oil-red O stain-positive cells showed abundant lipid. The percentage of cells showing lipid accumulation was greater in FA-treated cultures compared with control cells grown in DMEM plus serum (P < 0.001). Treatment with both linoleic and oleic acid-containing media evoked higher levels of PPAR-γ than observed in control cultures (P < 0.05). GLUT-4 protein also increased in response to treatment with both linoleic and oleic acid-containing media (P < 0.001). Lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells occurs in response to either oleic or linoleic acids independently of the presence of insulin. Both PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 protein expression were stimulated. Both proteins are considered markers of adipogenesis, and these observations suggest that these cells had entered the physiological state broadly accepted as differentiated. Furthermore, 3T3-L1 cells can be induced to accumulate lipid in a serum-free medium supplemented with FA, without the use of induction protocols using complex hormone mixtures. We have demonstrated a novel model for the study of lipid accumulation that will improve the understanding of adipogenesis in adipocyte lineage cells.
In February 1997 the Japanese radio astronomy satellite HALCA was launched to provide the space-borne element for the VSOP mission. HALCA provided linear baselines three-times greater than that of ground arrays, thus providing higher resolution and higher AGN brightness temperature measurements and limits. Twenty-five percent of the scientific time of the mission was devoted to the “VSOP survey” of bright, compact, extra-galactic radio sources at 5 GHz. A complete list of 294 survey targets were selected from pre-launch surveys, 91% of which were observed during the satellite's lifetime.
The major goals of the VSOP Survey are statistical in nature: to determine the brightness temperature and approximate structure, to provide a source list for use with future space VLBI missions, and to compare radio properties with other data throughout the electro-magnetic spectrum. All the data collected have now been analysed and is being prepared for the final image Survey paper. In this paper we present details of the mission, and some statistics of the images and brightness temperatures.
Detailed measurements of turbulent concentration parameters in a round free methane jet up to 70 diameters downstream from the jet source are described. The concentration changes were obtained using a Raman spectrometer designed for the measurement of a methane vibrational transition function, and processed using a photon correlator. Mean and fluctuating concentration levels are given, together with the concentration probability density distribution.
A theory for interpreting the statistical aspects of the signal is presented and results are compared with other data from the literature on jets of uniform and non-uniform density. It is shown that the intensity of concentration fluctuations has an asymptotic value of 28·5% in the far field region of the jet. One interesting feature of the data is the deviation from Gaussian statistics along the jet centre-line.
The observations of the supernova remnant G343.1—2.3 with the Mauritius Radio Telescope, the Australia Compact Array, and the Hobart Single dish are presented. With these more sensitive measurements the association with the pulsar PSR1706-44 becomes much more likely. The major points from the observations are presented.