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This article examines Libyan–US relations through the historical lenses of decolonization, international law, the Cold War, and the international political economy. The Libyan government exercised its newfound sovereignty in the postwar era through the negotiation of ‘base rights’ for the US government and ‘oil rights’ for corporations owned by US nationals. They did so in conjunction with other petrostates and through international organizations such as the United Nations, the Arab League, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Libyan leaders’ strategy of using sovereignty to promote corporate competition relied on connections with similarly situated nations, and it was through global circuits of knowledge that they pressed the outer limits of economic sovereignty. At the same time, the US government consistently accommodated Libyan policies through Cold War arguments that linked the alliance with Libya to US national security. Those deep foundations of sovereignty and security created the conditions for the transformation of the global oil industry after Libya’s 1969 revolution.
Biological knowledge is not created by individuals in isolation but through a process of review and response within scientific communities. Criticism then is a normal and necessary part of this process. Occasionally, however, lasting disagreements arise during this process that become scientific controversies. In modern biology, some of the most well-known controversies have been relative significance disputes, which are disagreements about the relative importance of features of a biological system. These do not admit all-or-nothing resolutions, but instead often start as strongly stated opposing positions only to find resolution in some middle ground. In this chapter, we consider different views on how biological communities both disagree and resolve those disagreements as part of the social process of knowledge production.
The elevated level of homocysteine (Hcys) has been observed in patients with schizophrenia. It is proposed that Hcys may act as an oxidant in the model system in vitro and in vivo, the aim of our study was to explain the effect of the elevated Hcys on the selected parameters of oxidative stress, namely thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation in plasma, the level of carbonyl groups in plasma proteins, as well as the amount of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma proteins isolated from schizophrenic patients (acc. to DSM-IV criteria). Patients were treated with atypical antipsychotics and interviewed with questionnaire (treatment, diet, addictive substances, metabolic syndrome). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyse the total level of homocysteine in plasma. Levels of carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine residues in plasma proteins were measured by ELISA and a competition ELISA, respectively. The lipid peroxidation in plasma was measured by levels of TBARS. Our results showed that in schizophrenic patients the amount of homocysteine in plasma was higher in comparison with the control (p < 0.00001). We also observed a statistically increased level of biomarkers of oxidative/nitrative stress such as carbonyl groups or 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma proteins from schizophrenic patients. Moreover, our experiments indicate that the correlation between the increased amount of homocysteine and the oxidative stress exists: for carbonyl group and 3-nitrotyrosine R = 0.83, R = 0.84 respectively). Considering the data of our study, we suggest that the elevated Hcys in schizophrenic patients may stimulate the oxidative stress.