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The Red Sea is a largely homogeneous water column beyond the top 300 m, unique in exhibiting warm bottom water (~21.5 °C) at depths down to ~2900 m. The unusual conditions coupled with barriers to colonization by primary deep-sea species has resulted in an impoverished but distinct deep fauna. This study presents a rare investigation of the deep Red Sea. The bigeye hound shark Iago omanensis is a known deep-sea shark in the Red Sea. However, its full depth distribution has never been conclusively studied. Here, we confirm with videographic evidence the presence of I. omanensis at depths to 2522 m in the Red Sea, along with observations of other deep-sea species. Iago omanensis was the only species of scavenging fish observed and only in moderate numbers. The additional six species were mostly crustacea in low abundance. The lack of scavenging species present in the deep Red Sea is likely explained by the low productivity of the overlying surface waters and unusually warm water temperature resulting in low energetic input but high metabolic demands in deep communities.
A machine learning model was created to predict the electron spectrum generated by a GeV-class laser wakefield accelerator. The model was constructed from variational convolutional neural networks, which mapped the results of secondary laser and plasma diagnostics to the generated electron spectrum. An ensemble of trained networks was used to predict the electron spectrum and to provide an estimation of the uncertainty of that prediction. It is anticipated that this approach will be useful for inferring the electron spectrum prior to undergoing any process that can alter or destroy the beam. In addition, the model provides insight into the scaling of electron beam properties due to stochastic fluctuations in the laser energy and plasma electron density.
Admission laboratory screening for asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been utilized to mitigate healthcare-associated severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. An understanding of the impact of such testing across a variety of patient populations is needed.
SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification admission testing results for all asymptomatic patients across 4 distinct inpatient facilities between April 20, 2020, and June 14, 2021, were analyzed. Positivity rates and the number needed to test (NNT) to identify 1 asymptomatic infected patient were calculated. Admission results were compared to COVID-19 community incidence rates for the system’s surrounding metropolitan service area. Using a national survey of hospital epidemiologists, a clinically meaningful NNT of 1:100 was identified.
In total, 51,187 tests were collected (positivity rate, 1.8%). During periods of high transmission, the NNT met the clinically relevant threshold in all populations. The NNT approached or met the threshold for most locations during periods of lower transmission. For all transmission levels, the NNT for fully vaccinated patients did not meet the threshold.
Implementing an asymptomatic patient admission testing program can provide clinically relevant data based on the NNT, even during periods of lower transmission and among different patient populations. Limiting admission testing to non–fully vaccinated patients during periods of lower transmission may be a strategy to address resource concerns around this practice. Although the impact of such testing on healthcare-associated COVID-19 among patients and healthcare workers could not be clearly determined, these data provide important information as facilities weigh the costs and benefits of such testing.
Starting from the biblical depiction of Christ’s incarnate personhood, this chapter traces the early church’s discernment of the deity and humanity of Christ that culminated in the Chalcedonian definition. Exploring the range of christological options, the chapter emphasizes the promise of a kenotic christology for making sense of Chalcedon’s intentions and parameters, including a fuller appreciation of Christ’s humanity.
This chapter articulates the identity of the church by way of key biblical metaphors and the Nicene Creed. It then examines the church’s mission, the role of proclamation and the sacraments, and the missional shape of the doctrine of election.
This chapter considers the meaning of the claim that human beings are created in God’s image (imago Dei), offering a representational-relational conception of the doctrine. It also examines how the corruptive effects of sin deface humanity’s image-bearing, pointing to the need for the image to be restored through the person of Jesus Christ, the true image of God.
This chapter takes up the doctrine of God generally, concentrating on the traditional understanding of divine being as a complex of attributes derived via positiva and via negative (i.e., “classical theism”). Given classical theism’s tensions with the biblical narrative, as well as its role in helping to foster the rise of modern atheism, the chapter argues for a rigorous trinitarian rethinking of key traditional divine attributes.
This chapter looks at the reality of religious plurality – more particularly, the relationship between the Christian church and other religious traditions – including the common typology of exclusivism, inclusivism, and pluralism. It also explores the significance of the fact that the Christian church’s numerical center has shifted from the West to the South and East, with significant consequences for the mission and theology of the church.
This chapter explores how the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ make reconciliation possible. It surveys the diverse biblical motifs surrounding reconciliation/atonement, the variety of traditional “atonement theories” that flowed out of those motifs, and a way of coherently integrating a variety of atonement approaches.
This chapter analyzes the context and theology of the Protestant Reformation, focusing on key theologians such as Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, and Calvin. It also examines responses to the Protestant Reformation, such as the radical reformers and forms of Catholic reformation, concluding with an exploration of the connection between Reformation theology and the rise of Protestant orthodoxy, pietism, and new forms of rationalism.
This chapter elaborates four pillars of an “ecumenical eschatology”: (1) the second coming of Christ (vis-à-vis “going to” heaven); (2) resurrection of the body (vis-à-vis an exclusive emphasis on an immortal soul); (3) final judgment/justice that is historical and public (vis-à-vis one that is heavenly and private); and (4) new heaven and earth (vis-à-vis an exclusive emphasis on heaven). It contends for a creational understanding of this doctrine, which implies that eschatology, rather than being merely a theological afterthought, is a central and mobilizing theme.
This chapter charts the medieval consolidation of the Christian world’s inheritance from the patristic tradition, giving some attention to the Byzantine East but primarily focusing on western theology. It examines important theological debates of the early Middle Ages, describes the development of scholastic theology, and explores the theology produced by the mendicant orders, especially that of Thomas Aquinas.
This chapter explores the contextual situation of theology today, engaging the set of challenges inherent in being caught between modernity (with challenges such as secularization, atheism, dehumanization, suffering, and the ecological crisis) and so-called postmodernity (with issues such as the demise of truth, the crisis of meaning, and a deepened global consciousness).
Beginning with a discussion of the difficult matter of defining “salvation,” this chapter explores the creational scope of the doctrine, which requires moving beyond a merely individualistic consideration of salvation. Within this context, the chapter addresses the traditional soteriological topics: justification, sanctification, the shape of the Christian life, and the eschatological orientation of salvation, including the resurrection of the body.
This chapter explores the nature, purpose, and method of Christian theology, giving attention to the classic Augustinian/Anselmian conception of theology as “faith seeking understanding.” It describes Christian theology as a systematic web of themes, the articulation of which aims at biblical-confessional soundness, logical coherence, and practical relevance.
This chapter surveys Christian theology from the turbulent 1960s – including significant reforms in Catholic theology, a renewed emphasis on history and eschatology in Protestant theology, and the rise of political and liberation theologies – to the postmodern present. The chapter concludes the book by inquiring about the significance of non-western theological proposals for the increasingly secularized West.