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Cognitive dispersion across neuropsychological measures within a single testing session is a promising marker predictive of cognitive decline and development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, little is known regarding brain changes underlying cognitive dispersion, and the association of cognitive dispersion with in vivo AD biomarkers and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) has received limited study. We therefore examined associations among cognitive dispersion, amyloid-beta (Aβ) positivity, and regional CBF among older adults free of dementia.
One hundred and forty-eight Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants underwent neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging. Pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was acquired to quantify CBF. Florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) imaging determined Aβ positivity.
Adjusting for age, gender, education, and mean cognitive performance, older adults who were Aβ+ showed higher cognitive dispersion relative to those who were Aβ-. Across the entire sample, higher cognitive dispersion was associated with reduced CBF in inferior parietal and temporal regions. Secondary analyses stratified by Aβ status demonstrated that higher cognitive dispersion was associated with reduced CBF among Aβ+ individuals but not among those who were Aβ-.
Cognitive dispersion may be sensitive to early Aβ accumulation and cerebrovascular changes adjusting for demographics and mean neuropsychological performance. Associations between cognitive dispersion and CBF were observed among Aβ+ individuals, suggesting that cognitive dispersion may be a marker of brain changes among individuals on the AD continuum. Future studies should examine whether cognitive dispersion predicts brain changes in diverse samples and among those with greater vascular risk burden.
This chapter presents a comprehensive review of the interaction between circum-Caribbean indigenous peoples and nonhuman primates before and at early European contact. It fills significant gaps in contemporary scholarly literature by providing an updated archaeological history of the social and symbolic roles of monkeys in this region. We begin by describing the zooarchaeological record of primates in the insular and coastal circum-Caribbean Ceramic period archaeological sites. Drawing from the latest archaeological investigations that use novel methods and techniques, we also review other biological evidence of the presence of monkeys. In addition, we compile a list of indigenously crafted portable material imagery and review rock art that allegedly depicts primates in the Caribbean. Our investigation is supplemented by the inclusion of written documentary sources, specifically, ethnoprimatological information derived from early ethnohistorical sources on the multifarious interactions between humans and monkeys in early colonial societies. Finally, we illustrate certain patterns that may have characterized interactions between humans and monkeys in past societies of the circum-Caribbean region (300–1500 CE), opening avenues for future investigations of this topic.
Archaeoprimatology, Ceramic period, Greater and Lesser Antilles, Island and coastal archaeology, Saladoid, Taíno, Trinidad, Venezuela
Barrett’s oesophagus (BE) is the precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which has become the most common type of oesophageal cancer in many Western populations. Existing evidence on diet and risk of BE predominantly comes from case–control studies, which are subject to recall bias in measurement of diet. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of diet, including macronutrients, carotenoids, food groups, specific food items, beverages and dietary scores, on risk of BE in over 20 000 participants of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Diet at baseline (1990–1994) was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. The outcome was BE diagnosed between baseline and follow-up (2007–2010). Logistic regression models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI for diet in relation to risk of BE. Intakes of leafy vegetables and fruit were inversely associated with risk of BE (highest v. lowest quartile: OR = 0·59; CI: 0·38, 0·94; P-trend = 0·02 and OR = 0·58; CI: 0·37, 0·93; P-trend = 0·02 respectively), as were dietary fibre and carotenoids. Stronger associations were observed for food than the nutrients found in them. Positive associations were observed for discretionary food (OR = 1·54; CI: 0·97, 2·44; P-trend = 0·04) and total fat intake (OR per 10 g/d = 1·11; CI: 1·00, 1·23), the association for fat was less robust in sensitivity analyses. No association was observed for meat, protein, dairy products or diet scores. Diet is a potential modifiable risk factor for BE. Public health and clinical guidelines that incorporate dietary recommendations could contribute to reduction in risk of BE and, thereby, oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is one of the most problematic weeds in many cropping systems in the midsouthern United States because of its multiple weedy traits and its propensity to evolve resistance to many herbicides with different mechanisms of action. In Arkansas, A. palmeri has evolved metabolic resistance to S-metolachlor, compromising the effectiveness of an important weed management tool. Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the differential response of A. palmeri accessions from three states (Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee) to (1) assess the occurrence of resistance to S-metolachlor among A. palmeri populations, (2) evaluate the resistance level in selected accessions and their resistant progeny, (3) and determine the susceptibility of most resistant accessions to other soil-applied herbicides. Seeds were collected from 168 crop fields between 2017 and 2019. One hundred seeds per accession were planted in silt loam soil without herbicide for >20 yr and sprayed with the labeled rate of S-metolachlor (1,120 g ai ha−1). Six accessions (four from Arkansas and two from Mississippi) were classified resistant to S-metolachlor. The effective doses (LD50) to control the parent accessions ranged between 73 and 443 g ha−1, and those of F1 progeny of survivors were 73 to 577 g ha−1. The resistance level was generally greater among progeny of surviving plants than among resistant field populations. The resistant field populations required 2.2 to 7.0 times more S-metolachlor to reduce seedling emergence 50%, while the F1 of survivors needed up to 9.2 times more herbicide to reduce emergence 50% compared with the susceptible standard.
The Homa Peninsula has been known to science since 1911, and fossil specimens from the area comprise many type specimens for common African mammalian paleospecies. Here we discuss the fauna and the paleoenvironmental information from the Homa Peninsula. The Homa Peninsula is a 200 km2 area in Homa Bay County, situated on the southern margin of the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria in Kenya (Figure 29.1). Lake Victoria is estimated to be the third largest lake in the world, with a surface area of 68,900 km2 and a maximum length of approximately 616 km. Although its catchment is extensive, it is relatively shallow compared to any other lake of similar size, with a maximum depth of 84 m. Lake Victoria is located in a depression formed by the western and eastern branches of the East African Rift System (EARS), and is at an average elevation of 1135 m a.s.l. (Database for Hydrological Time Series of Inland Waters, 2017).
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) has emerged out of the quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology. This approach identifies psychopathology constructs based on patterns of co-variation among signs and symptoms. The initial HiTOP model, which was published in 2017, is based on a large literature that spans decades of research. HiTOP is a living model that undergoes revision as new data become available. Here we discuss advantages and practical considerations of using this system in psychiatric practice and research. We especially highlight limitations of HiTOP and ongoing efforts to address them. We describe differences and similarities between HiTOP and existing diagnostic systems. Next, we review the types of evidence that informed development of HiTOP, including populations in which it has been studied and data on its validity. The paper also describes how HiTOP can facilitate research on genetic and environmental causes of psychopathology as well as the search for neurobiologic mechanisms and novel treatments. Furthermore, we consider implications for public health programs and prevention of mental disorders. We also review data on clinical utility and illustrate clinical application of HiTOP. Importantly, the model is based on measures and practices that are already used widely in clinical settings. HiTOP offers a way to organize and formalize these techniques. This model already can contribute to progress in psychiatry and complement traditional nosologies. Moreover, HiTOP seeks to facilitate research on linkages between phenotypes and biological processes, which may enable construction of a system that encompasses both biomarkers and precise clinical description.
Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy have multiple risk factors for lower extremity oedema. This study sought to define the frequency and predictors of oedema. Patients aged 15 years and older were screened by patient questionnaire, and the presence of oedema was confirmed by subsequent physical exam. Twenty-four of 52 patients (46%) had oedema, 12 of whom had swelling extending above the foot and two with sores/skin breakdown. There was no significant difference in age, frequency, or duration of glucocorticoid use, non-invasive respiratory support use, forced vital capacity, cardiac medication use, or ejection fraction between patients with and without oedema (all p > 0.2). Those with oedema had a greater time since the loss of ambulation (8.4 years versus 3.5 years; p = 0.004), higher body mass index (28.3 versus 24.8; p = 0.014), and lower frequency of deflazacort use (67% versus 89%; p = 0.008). Multivariate analysis revealed a longer duration of loss of ambulation (p = 0.02) and higher body mass index (p = 0.009) as predictors of oedema. Lower extremity oedema is common in Duchenne muscular dystrophy but independent of cardiac function. Interventions focused on minimising body mass index increases over time may be a therapeutic target.
Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are heterogeneous at the clinical and the biological level. Therefore, the aims were to dissect the heterogeneous neurodevelopmental deviations of the affective brain circuitry and provide an integration of these differences across modalities.
We combined two novel approaches. First, normative modeling to map deviations from the typical age-related pattern at the level of the individual of (i) activity during emotion matching and (ii) of anatomical images derived from DBD cases (n = 77) and controls (n = 52) aged 8–18 years from the EU-funded Aggressotype and MATRICS consortia. Second, linked independent component analysis to integrate subject-specific deviations from both modalities.
While cases exhibited on average a higher activity than would be expected for their age during face processing in regions such as the amygdala when compared to controls these positive deviations were widespread at the individual level. A multimodal integration of all functional and anatomical deviations explained 23% of the variance in the clinical DBD phenotype. Most notably, the top marker, encompassing the default mode network (DMN) and subcortical regions such as the amygdala and the striatum, was related to aggression across the whole sample.
Overall increased age-related deviations in the amygdala in DBD suggest a maturational delay, which has to be further validated in future studies. Further, the integration of individual deviation patterns from multiple imaging modalities allowed to dissect some of the heterogeneity of DBD and identified the DMN, the striatum and the amygdala as neural signatures that were associated with aggression.
Numerous theories posit different core features to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent advances in network analysis provide a method of examining the relative centrality of BPD symptoms, as well as examine the replicability of findings across samples. Additionally, despite the increase in research supporting the validity of BPD in adolescents, clinicians are reluctant to diagnose BPD in adolescents. Establishing the replicability of the syndrome across adolescents and adults informs clinical practice and research. This study examined the stability of BPD symptom networks and centrality of symptoms across samples varying in age and clinical characteristics.
Cross-sectional analyses of BPD symptoms from semi-structured diagnostic interviews from the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (CLPS), the Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Service (MIDAS) study, and an adolescent clinical sample. Network attributes, including edge (partial association) strength and node (symptom) expected influence, were compared.
The three networks were largely similar and strongly correlated. Affective instability and identity disturbance emerged as relatively central symptoms across the three samples, and relationship difficulties across adult networks. Differences in network attributes were more evident between networks varying both in age and in BPD symptom severity level.
Findings highlight the relative importance of affective, identity, and relationship symptoms, consistent with several leading theories of BPD. The network structure of BPD symptoms appears generally replicable across multiple large samples including adolescents and adults, providing further support for the validity of the diagnosis across these developmental phases.
Cross-species evidence suggests that the ability to exert control over a stressor is a key dimension of stress exposure that may sensitize frontostriatal-amygdala circuitry to promote more adaptive responses to subsequent stressors. The present study examined neural correlates of stressor controllability in young adults. Participants (N = 56; Mage = 23.74, range = 18–30 years) completed either the controllable or uncontrollable stress condition of the first of two novel stressor controllability tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition. Participants in the uncontrollable stress condition were yoked to age- and sex-matched participants in the controllable stress condition. All participants were subsequently exposed to uncontrollable stress in the second task, which is the focus of fMRI analyses reported here. A whole-brain searchlight classification analysis revealed that patterns of activity in the right dorsal anterior insula (dAI) during subsequent exposure to uncontrollable stress could be used to classify participants' initial exposure to either controllable or uncontrollable stress with a peak of 73% accuracy. Previous experience of exerting control over a stressor may change the computations performed within the right dAI during subsequent stress exposure, shedding further light on the neural underpinnings of stressor controllability.
Advanced malignant neoplasms of the larynx and hypopharynx pose many therapeutic challenges. Total pharyngolaryngectomy and total laryngectomy provide an opportunity to cure these tumours but are associated with significant morbidity. Reconstruction of the pharyngeal defect following total pharyngolaryngectomy demands careful consideration and remains an area of debate within surgical discussions.
This paper describes a systemic analysis of pharyngeal reconstruction following total pharyngolaryngectomy and total laryngectomy, leveraging data collected over a 20-year period at a large tertiary referral centre.
Analysing 155 patients, the results show that circumferential pharyngeal defects and prior radiotherapy have a significant impact on surgical complications. In addition, free tissue transfer in larger pharyngeal defects showed lower rates of post-operative anastomosis leak and stricture.
Pharyngeal resection carries a substantial risk of post-operative complications, and free tissue transfer appears to be an effective means of reconstruction for circumferential defects.
Surface meltwater is becoming increasingly widespread on Antarctic ice shelves. It is stored within surface ponds and streams, or within firn pore spaces, which may saturate to form slush. Slush can reduce firn air content, increasing an ice-shelf's vulnerability to break-up. To date, no study has mapped the changing extent of slush across ice shelves. Here, we use Google Earth Engine and Landsat 8 images from six ice shelves to generate training classes using a k-means clustering algorithm, which are used to train a random forest classifier to identify both slush and ponded water. Validation using expert elicitation gives accuracies of 84% and 82% for the ponded water and slush classes, respectively. Errors result from subjectivity in identifying the ponded water/slush boundary, and from inclusion of cloud and shadows. We apply our classifier to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf for the entire 2013–20 Landsat 8 record. On average, 64% of all surface meltwater is classified as slush and 36% as ponded water. Total meltwater areal extent is greatest between late January and mid-February. This highlights the importance of mapping slush when studying surface meltwater on ice shelves. Future research will apply the classifier across all Antarctic ice shelves.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
This paper describes a simple method of securing tissue coverage of the great vessels at the initial surgery by rotating the divided sternal heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, a routine step during laryngectomy, and approximating them to the prevertebral fascia. The paper presents an illustrated case example where this technique in a salvage laryngectomy repair resulted in a protected vascular axis following a salivary leak.
Since utilising this technique, there has been a marked reduction in the requirement of subsequent flap procedures to protect vessels, and no episodes of threatened or actual carotid blowout.
This Phase 1, open-label, single-dose, one-period, one-treatment PK study enrolled 12 children 6–12 y with ADHD. PK parameters for d- and l-amphetamine in plasma (Cmax, tmax, AUC0–8, and t1/2) were calculated and expressed as means, geometric means, and standard deviations. The primary endpoint was all objective PK measurements at 28 hours post-dose. PK was evaluated for 2 cohorts (6 pts ages 6–9 y and 6 pts aged 10–12 y). Safety was monitored continuously and assessed based on occurrence of adverse events.
A single dose of 10 mg (4 ml) AMPH EROS (2.5 mg/ml) administered under fasted conditions resulted in a rapid rise in mean plasma concentration in d-amphetamine, reaching maximum concentrations within 5 hours. The overall study population mean (SD) plasma AUC0–8 (d-amphetamine) was 1061.2 (309) h*ng/mL, and for l-amphetamine was 380.5 (112) h*ng/mL. The mean maximum concentration (Cmax) for the overall study population was 54.91 ng/mL and 17.1 (5.2) ng/mL for d- and l-amphetamine, respectively. The overall study population median time to maximum concentrations (Tmax) for d-amphetamine were reached at 3.4 hours, and for l-amphetamine at 4.1 hours. The elimination half-life (t1/2) for the entire study cohort was 10.6 (2.0) hours for d-amphetamine, and 12.5 (3.2) hours for l-amphetamine. Directionally, a higher mean Cmax, AUC0–8, AUCt, and median Tmax were observed in the younger (6 to 9-year-old) age group, and this result was consistent with both the d- and l-amphetamine enantiomers. The mean elimination t1/2 for both d- and l-amphetamine was higher in the older cohort (10–12 years) than in the 6 to 12-year-olds. Study drug was well-tolerated by the subjects in this study. Two TEAEs were reported in one subject TEAEs (diarrhea and rash on legs) occurred approximately 12 hours postdose.
This study confirmed that the PK profile of AMPH EROS in 6 to 12-year-olds provided a consistent, predictable extended-release profile in a highly titratable liquid formulation, and this finding was relatively consistent and directionally predictable between the age groups assessed, with higher maximum concentrations and AUCs and shorter elimination half-lives noted in the younger population, with no anomalous parameters demonstrated, and no untoward or unexpected safety issues noted.