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Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
This paper describes a simple method of securing tissue coverage of the great vessels at the initial surgery by rotating the divided sternal heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, a routine step during laryngectomy, and approximating them to the prevertebral fascia. The paper presents an illustrated case example where this technique in a salvage laryngectomy repair resulted in a protected vascular axis following a salivary leak.
Since utilising this technique, there has been a marked reduction in the requirement of subsequent flap procedures to protect vessels, and no episodes of threatened or actual carotid blowout.
This Phase 1, open-label, single-dose, one-period, one-treatment PK study enrolled 12 children 6–12 y with ADHD. PK parameters for d- and l-amphetamine in plasma (Cmax, tmax, AUC0–8, and t1/2) were calculated and expressed as means, geometric means, and standard deviations. The primary endpoint was all objective PK measurements at 28 hours post-dose. PK was evaluated for 2 cohorts (6 pts ages 6–9 y and 6 pts aged 10–12 y). Safety was monitored continuously and assessed based on occurrence of adverse events.
A single dose of 10 mg (4 ml) AMPH EROS (2.5 mg/ml) administered under fasted conditions resulted in a rapid rise in mean plasma concentration in d-amphetamine, reaching maximum concentrations within 5 hours. The overall study population mean (SD) plasma AUC0–8 (d-amphetamine) was 1061.2 (309) h*ng/mL, and for l-amphetamine was 380.5 (112) h*ng/mL. The mean maximum concentration (Cmax) for the overall study population was 54.91 ng/mL and 17.1 (5.2) ng/mL for d- and l-amphetamine, respectively. The overall study population median time to maximum concentrations (Tmax) for d-amphetamine were reached at 3.4 hours, and for l-amphetamine at 4.1 hours. The elimination half-life (t1/2) for the entire study cohort was 10.6 (2.0) hours for d-amphetamine, and 12.5 (3.2) hours for l-amphetamine. Directionally, a higher mean Cmax, AUC0–8, AUCt, and median Tmax were observed in the younger (6 to 9-year-old) age group, and this result was consistent with both the d- and l-amphetamine enantiomers. The mean elimination t1/2 for both d- and l-amphetamine was higher in the older cohort (10–12 years) than in the 6 to 12-year-olds. Study drug was well-tolerated by the subjects in this study. Two TEAEs were reported in one subject TEAEs (diarrhea and rash on legs) occurred approximately 12 hours postdose.
This study confirmed that the PK profile of AMPH EROS in 6 to 12-year-olds provided a consistent, predictable extended-release profile in a highly titratable liquid formulation, and this finding was relatively consistent and directionally predictable between the age groups assessed, with higher maximum concentrations and AUCs and shorter elimination half-lives noted in the younger population, with no anomalous parameters demonstrated, and no untoward or unexpected safety issues noted.
This open-label, single-dose, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, crossover study evaluated the comparative bioavailability between amphetamine extended-release oral suspension (treatment A: AMPH EROS, Dyanavel XR 2.5 mg/mL, 18.8 mg amphetamine base per 7.5 mL) and extended-release mixed amphetamine salts (treatment B: ER MAS, Adderall XR 30 mg capsules, equivalent to 18.8 mg amphetamine base per capsule) after a single dose in healthy adult subjects, under fasted conditions.
The crossover design allowed for intra-subject PK comparisons. Relative comparable bioavailability was determined by a statistical comparison of the AUC and Cmax parameters for both d- and l-amphetamine, where the geometric mean ratios for AUC and Cmax were within the 90% confidence limits (80.0%–125.0%) to determine comparable bioavailability between test products. Subjects in sequence 1 received treatment A followed by B; subjects in sequence 2 received treatment B followed by treatment A. PK samples were obtained at 0 (pre-dose) through 60 hours post-dose. The safety assessment was based on reported frequency and severity of adverse events.
Thirty (30) subjects were enrolled and 28 completed. The mean age of subjects was 35 years, with a mean BMI of 25.9 kg/m2. Most subjects were Male (63.3%) and Black (56.7%). The geometric mean ratios for Cmax and all AUC measurements were within the 80–125% bound indicating comparable bioavailability between both test products. Both test products were generally well-tolerated with no serious AEs reported.
The bioavailability of a single 7.5 mL dose of AMPH EROS 2.5 mg/mL was comparable to a single 30 mg capsule dose of ER MAS. AMPH EROS (both d- and l-amphetamine) showed equivalent peak and overall exposure to ER MAS under fasted conditions.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplementary materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.
Mass asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplified testing of healthcare personnel (HCP) was performed at a large tertiary health system. A low period-prevalence of positive HCP was observed. Of those who tested positive, half had mild symptoms in retrospect. HCP with even mild symptoms should be isolated and tested.
To examine associations between diet and risk of developing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Prospective cohort with a median follow-up of 15·8 years. Baseline diet was measured using a FFQ. GERD was defined as self-reported current or history of daily heartburn or acid regurgitation beginning at least 2 years after baseline. Sex-specific logistic regressions were performed to estimate OR for GERD associated with diet quality scores and intakes of nutrients, food groups and individual foods and beverages. The effect of substituting saturated fat for monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat on GERD risk was examined.
A cohort of 20 926 participants (62 % women) aged 40–59 years at recruitment between 1990 and 1994.
For men, total fat intake was associated with increased risk of GERD (OR 1·05 per 5 g/d; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09; P = 0·016), whereas total carbohydrate (OR 0·89 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·98; P = 0·010) and starch intakes (OR 0·84 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·94; P = 0·005) were associated with reduced risk. Nutrients were not associated with risk for women. For both sexes, substituting saturated fat for polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat did not change risk. For both sexes, fish, chicken, cruciferous vegetables and carbonated beverages were associated with increased risk, whereas total fruit and citrus were associated with reduced risk. No association was observed with diet quality scores.
Diet is a possible risk factor for GERD, but food considered as triggers of GERD symptoms might not necessarily contribute to disease development. Potential differential associations for men and women warrant further investigation.
The direct carbonate procedure for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating of submilligram samples of biogenic carbonate without graphitization is becoming widely used in a variety of studies. We compare the results of 153 paired direct carbonate and standard graphite 14C determinations on single specimens of an assortment of biogenic carbonates. A reduced major axis regression shows a strong relationship between direct carbonate and graphite percent Modern Carbon (pMC) values (m = 0.996; 95% CI [0.991–1.001]). An analysis of differences and a 95% confidence interval on pMC values reveals that there is no significant difference between direct carbonate and graphite pMC values for 76% of analyzed specimens, although variation in direct carbonate pMC is underestimated. The difference between the two methods is typically within 2 pMC, with 61% of direct carbonate pMC measurements being higher than their paired graphite counterpart. Of the 36 specimens that did yield significant differences, all but three missed the 95% significance threshold by 1.2 pMC or less. These results show that direct carbonate 14C dating of biogenic carbonates is a cost-effective and efficient complement to standard graphite 14C dating.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakening. Adverse impacts on human society include increasing water shortages and impacts on mental health. Options for solutions emerge from rethinking economic models, rights-based litigation, strengthened governance systems and a new social contract. The disruption caused by COVID-19 could be seized as an opportunity for positive change, directing economic stimulus towards sustainable investments.
A synthesis is made of ten fields within climate science where there have been significant advances since mid-2019, through an expert elicitation process with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) a better understanding of equilibrium climate sensitivity; (2) abrupt thaw as an accelerator of carbon release from permafrost; (3) changes to global and regional land carbon sinks; (4) impacts of climate change on water crises, including equity perspectives; (5) adverse effects on mental health from climate change; (6) immediate effects on climate of the COVID-19 pandemic and requirements for recovery packages to deliver on the Paris Agreement; (7) suggested long-term changes to governance and a social contract to address climate change, learning from the current pandemic, (8) updated positive cost–benefit ratio and new perspectives on the potential for green growth in the short- and long-term perspective; (9) urban electrification as a strategy to move towards low-carbon energy systems and (10) rights-based litigation as an increasingly important method to address climate change, with recent clarifications on the legal standing and representation of future generations.
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Stronger permafrost thaw, COVID-19 effects and growing mental health impacts among highlights of latest climate science.
Recent work in structure–processing relationships of polymer semiconductors have demonstrated the versatility and control of thin-film microstructure offered by meniscus-guided coating (MGC) techniques. Here, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative aspects of solution shearing, a model MGC method, using coating blades augmented with arrays of pillars. The pillars induce local regions of high strain rates—both shear and extensional—not otherwise possible with unmodified blades, and we use fluid mechanical simulations to model and study a variety of pillar spacings and densities. We then perform a statistical analysis of 130 simulation variables to find correlations with three dependent variables of interest: thin-film degree of crystallinity and transistor field-effect mobilities for charge-transport parallel (μpara) and perpendicular (μperp) to the coating direction. Our study suggests that simple fluid mechanical models can reproduce substantive correlations between the induced fluid flow and important performance metrics, providing a methodology for optimizing blade design.
The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is commonly used to assist with post-concussion return-to-play decisions for athletes. Additional investigation is needed to determine whether embedded indicators used to determine the validity of scores are influenced by the presence of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs).
This study examined standard and novel ImPACT validity indicators in a large sample of high school athletes (n = 33,772) with or without self-reported ND.
Overall, 7.1% of athletes’ baselines were judged invalid based on standard ImPACT validity criteria. When analyzed by group (healthy, ND), there were significantly more invalid ImPACT baselines for athletes with an ND diagnosis or special education history (between 9.7% and 54.3% for standard and novel embedded validity criteria) when compared to athletes without NDs. ND history was a significant predictor of invalid baseline performance above and beyond other demographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, and sport), although it accounted for only a small percentage of variance. Multivariate base rates are presented stratified for age, sex, and ND.
These data provide evidence of higher than normal rates of invalid baselines in athletes who report ND (based on both the standard and novel embedded validity indicators). Although ND accounted for a small percentage of variance in the prediction of invalid performance, negative consequences (e.g., extended time out of sports) of incorrect decision-making should be considered for those with neurodevelopmental conditions. Also, reasons for the overall increase noted here, such as decreased motivation, “sandbagging”, or disability-related cognitive deficit, require additional investigation.
To evaluate the relative bioavailability of a single dose of amphetamine extended-release oral suspension (AMPH EROS) compared with a single dose of extended-release mixed amphetamine salts (ER MAS) in healthy, fasted adult subjects.
The study population consisted of healthy adult volunteers. The study drug used in this study was 7.5 mL of 2.5 mg/mL AMPH EROS equivalent to 18.8 mg of amphetamine base administered after an overnight fast of at least 10 hours. AMPH EROS comprises a 3.2:1 enantiomeric ratio of d-amphetamine to l-amphetamine. The reference product was one 30 mg ER MAS capsule (equivalent to 18.8 mg of amphetamine base). Relative bioavailability between the products was determined by a statistical comparison of the area under the curve and maximum concentration (Cmax) for d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine. PK (PK) blood samples were collected prior to dosing (0-hour) and at 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hours after drug administration, totaling 20 samples in each period.
The mean subject age was 35.0 (standard deviation ±8) years, and the overall study population comprised 19 (63.3%) males and 11 (36.7%) females. The contrasts for geometric mean ratios for all assessed PK parameters (for both l- and d-amphetamine) between the test article AMPH EROS and reference product ER MAS fell within the prescribed 80% to 125% limits.
The overall PK profile of single-dose AMPH EROS 7.5 mL was found to be comparable with a single dose of oral ER MAS 30 mg.
Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) requires that all faculty and staff receive the seasonal influenza vaccine annually or receive an approved vaccine exemption, either for a medical or deeply held religious or personal belief. We sought to understand the underlying principles behind these exemption requests and their interaction with a multidisciplinary exemption review process.
All of the personal and religious exemption requests at VUMC for 3 consecutive influenza seasons from 2015 to 2018 were analyzed, categorizing these requests by 1 of 12 standardized employee categories and 1 of 18 unique reasons for vaccine exemption.
Tertiary-care academic medical center.
Healthcare personnel (HCP).
Among the 3 influenza seasons, 1.1%–2.1% of all VUMC HCP requested religious or personal exemption from vaccination. The frequency of religious and personal exemption approval increased annually from 296 of 452 (65.5%) to 196 of 248 (80.2%) to 283 of 323 (87.6%) over the 3 seasons, representing a statistically significant increase each year. Of the 5 most common reasons against vaccination, 4 were explicitly religious in nature; the most common reason was that the “body is a temple or sacred.” Nonclinical staff submitted the most religious and personal exemption requests of any job category, submitting approximately one-third of all requests every year.
These results demonstrate how detailed the personal or religious convictions behind vaccine avoidance can be among HCP and how vaccine avoidance stems from much more than simple misinformation regarding vaccination. The intersection between misinformation and personal or religious beliefs provides a unique opportunity to address HCP opinions toward vaccination in an exemption and appeals process like the one described here.
Disparities exist in the health, livelihood, and opportunities for the 46-60 million people living in America’s rural communities. Rural communities across the United States need a new energy and focus concentrated around health and health care that allows for the designing capturing, and spreading of existing and new innovations. This paper aims to provide a framework for policy solutions to build a healthier rural America describing both the current state of rural health policy and the policies and practices in states that could be used as a national model for positive change.
The aim of this study was to investigate the ethical dilemma of prioritising financial resources to expensive biological therapies. For this purpose, the four principles of biomedical ethics formulated by ethicists Tom Beauchamp and James Childress were used as a theoretical framework. Based on arguments of justice, Beauchamp and Childress advocate for a health care system organised in line with the Danish system. Notably, our study was carried out in a Danish setting.
Atrazine applied at planting is commonly used for weed control in corn. With global climate change causing an increase in river flooding in the United States over the past decade, producers need information to determine the best course of action in flooded fields treated with atrazine into which they wish to immediately plant soybean. Studies were designed to understand the effect of flooding on atrazine residual activity including atrazine concentration, soybean injury, and soybean yield. In 2012, soybean yield in flooded treatments was reduced by prior atrazine application. In 2014, soybean injury was <10% in all plots, and nonflooded, atrazine-treated soils had yields equal to the nontreated. Findings from this research indicated that it is possible for producers to consider replanting soybean after atrazine application, with appropriate changes to product labeling.