To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Assaultive violence events are associated with increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, including post-traumatic stress (PTS), depression, and generalized anxiety. Prior research has indicated that economic, legal, and social stressors that could follow assaultive events may explain the increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, yet longitudinal studies have not adequately examined this pathway. In the current study, we aimed to address this limitation.
Participants (N = 1360) were part of a longitudinal population-based study of adults living in Detroit. At three waves, participants indicated their exposure to assaultive violence and economic, legal, and social stressors, and completed inventories of PTS, depression, and generalized anxiety. Longitudinal mediation models were used to test the hypothesized pathway from assaultive violence to each psychiatric outcome.
The hypothesized models evidenced good fit with the data and, in each, the paths from Wave 1 (W1) assaultive violence to W2 stressors, and from W2 stressors to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.09–0.15, all p < 0.01). Additionally, the indirect paths from W1 assaultive violence to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.01–0.02, all p < 0.05).
The findings illustrate that the economic, legal, and social stressors that could follow assaultive violence increase risk for a range of psychiatric symptoms. Although future research is needed, the results suggest that investment in interventions that prevent and mitigate assaultive violence survivors’ exposure to such stressors may be an effective way to prevent mental illness in the aftermath of violent assaults.
This study assessed the utility of current sialendoscopes in the paranasal sinuses in a cadaveric model and evaluated novel uses for sialendoscopes.
Currently available sialendoscopes were used for visualisation and performing interventions in the paranasal sinuses. Ten cadaver heads were studied before and after dissection. Outcomes included ostia identification, sinus cannulation, success of mucosal biopsy collection and image clarity.
Marchal and Erlangen sialendoscopes were found to be effective for both visualising and cannulating the sphenoid sinuses before and after dissection. Both types demonstrated poor maxillary ostia visualisation without dissection, but did allow treatment after antrostomy. Larger diameter sialendoscopes were associated with the lowest image distortion during maxillary ostia assessment. Mucosal biopsy collection within the sphenoid sinus, but not in the maxillary sinus, was possible before dissection.
Sialendoscopes can be used for visualisation and performing interventions in the sinonasal cavity, but their utility is mainly limited to the sphenoid sinus. They may be considered a minimally invasive method for drug delivery and/or biopsy collection in the post-operative setting for all sinuses. Design improvements are suggested.
We present a complete spatial and dynamical study of the poorly populated stellar system ESO65SC03. The radial distribution of the system gives a core and cluster radii of 1.10±0.63 and 5.36±0.24 arcmin, respectively. The SNDP does not show any clear enhancement of the surface stellar number density between the stars of the system and the field regions. We derive the optimum isochrone solution for a particular grid size in the CMD using the statistical cleaning procedure. Using the statistically cleaned CMDs, we find the distance modulus, (m − M)0, and reddening, E(B − V), of the system to be 11.8±0.2 and 0.45 mag, respectively. The mean proper motion of this system is − 5.37±0.81 mas yr−1 and 0.31±0.40 in RA and DEC directions, respectively. The mean proper motion of this system is found to be almost similar to the field region. The mass function for the brighter stars is found to be too high for the system to be an open cluster. These combined results place constraints on whether stellar system ESO65SC03 is a POCR or an Asterism. Our understanding is that the ESO65SC03 is in a stage of POCR by losing their main-sequence stars in the dynamic evolution processes.
Pregnancy is a special condition where many metabolic changes may occur because of increased requirement of essential micronutrients such as iron and iodine. Foetal thyroid starts producing its own thyroid hormones after 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the first trimester is very crucial for meeting thyroid hormone requirements of the mother and foetus. Iodine deficiency and iron deficiency may affect mental and physical growth of the foetus. Hence, it is very important to establish a programme on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction tests along with established iron status assessment. Thus, the study was aimed to screen the pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during early gestation, situational analysis on thyroid insufficiency and iron deficiency in pregnant women (gestational age <15 weeks) in urban Vadodara, Gujarat. n = 256 healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were selected. The thyroid hormone was estimated by RIA, UIE using simple microplate technique and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration by acid hematin method. Median thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4) and UIE concentrations were 1.88 μIU/ml, 0.83 ng/dl, 10.24 μg/dl and 297.14 mcg/l, respectively. There was a significant correlation between TSH, FT4 and month of gestation. Mean Hb concentration was 9.27 ± 1.09 g/dl. The prevalence of iodine insufficiency (based on UI) was 16.79% and iron deficiency was 91%. Screening programme for iodine deficiency during early gestation should be implemented along with the existing programme of haemoglobin estimation at first prenatal visit. This would help prevent damage to the developing brain and growth of the foetus and also to trace at-risk pregnant women.
Very little is known on the impact of recurrent disasters on mental health.
The present study examines the immediate impact of a recurrent flood on mental health and functioning among an affected population in the rural district of Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh, India, compared with a population in the same region that is not affected by floods.
The study compared 318 affected respondents with 308 individuals who were not affected by floods. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Psychological and physical functioning was assessed by using the Short Form-12 (SF-12).
The affected group showed large to very large differences with the comparison group on symptoms of anxiety (D = .92) and depression (D = 1.22). The affected group scored significantly lower on psychological and physical functioning than the comparison group (respectively D = .33 and D = .80). However, hierarchical linear regressions showed no significant relationship between mental health and the domains of functioning in the affected group, whereas mental health and the domains of functioning were significantly related in the comparison group.
This study found a large negative impact of the recurrent floods on mental health outcomes and psychological and physical functioning. However, in a context with recurrent floods, disaster mental health status is not a relevant predictor of functioning. The findings suggest that the observed mental health status and impaired functioning in this context are also outcomes of another mechanism: Both outcomes are likely to be related to the erosion of the social and environmental and material context. As such, the findings refer to a need to implement psychosocial context-oriented interventions to address the erosion of the context rather than specific mental health interventions.
WindTR, JoshiPC, KleberRJ, KomproeIH. The Impact of Recurrent Disasters on Mental Health: A Study on Seasonal Floods in Northern India. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(3):1-7.
Deriving glacier outlines from satellite data has become increasingly popular in the past decade. In particular when glacier outlines are used as a base for change assessment, it is important to know how accurate they are. Calculating the accuracy correctly is challenging, as appropriate reference data (e.g. from higher-resolution sensors) are seldom available. Moreover, after the required manual correction of the raw outlines (e.g. for debris cover), such a comparison would only reveal the accuracy of the analyst rather than of the algorithm applied. Here we compare outlines for clean and debris-covered glaciers, as derived from single and multiple digitizing by different or the same analysts on very high- (1 m) and medium-resolution (30 m) remote-sensing data, against each other and to glacier outlines derived from automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Results show a high variability in the interpretation of debris-covered glacier parts, largely independent of the spatial resolution (area differences were up to 30%), and an overall good agreement for clean ice with sufficient contrast to the surrounding terrain (differences ∼5%). The differences of the automatically derived outlines from a reference value are as small as the standard deviation of the manual digitizations from several analysts. Based on these results, we conclude that automated mapping of clean ice is preferable to manual digitization and recommend using the latter method only for required corrections of incorrectly mapped glacier parts (e.g. debris cover, shadow).
Insufficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate during pregnancy can result in low concentrations in the fetus and have adverse effects on brain development. We investigated the relationship between maternal B12 and folate nutrition during pregnancy and offspring motor, mental and social development at two years of age (2 y). Mothers (n = 123) and their offspring (62 girls, 61 boys) from rural and middle-class urban communities in and around Pune city were followed through pregnancy up to 2 y. Maternal B12 and folate concentrations were measured at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation. At 2 y, the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants was used to determine motor and mental developmental quotients and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale for the social developmental quotient. Overall, 62% of the mothers had low B12 levels (<150 pmol/l) and one mother was folate deficient during pregnancy. Maternal B12 at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation was associated with offspring B12 at 2 y (r = 0.29, r = 0.32, P < 0.001), but folate was not associated with offspring folate. At 2 y, motor development was associated with maternal folate at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation. Mental and social development quotients were associated positively with head circumference and negatively with birth weight. In addition, pregnancy B12 and folate were positively associated with mental and social development quotients. Maternal B12 and folate during intrauterine life may favorably influence brain development and function. Pregnancy provides a window of opportunity to enhance fetal psychomotor (motor and mental) development.
Longitudinal studies investigating vitamin B12 and folate status of mothers and their offspring will provide a better understanding of intergenerational nutrition. During pregnancy and 2 years (2y) after delivery, we measured plasma vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in 118 women [aged (mean ± s.d.) 22.9 ± 3.9y] who attended a rural (n = 68) or an urban (n = 50) antenatal clinic in Pune, India. Cord blood vitamin B12 and folate were measured, and when the child was 2y total homocysteine (tHcy) was also measured. Demographic and diet measurements were recorded using standard methods.
Pregnancy plasma vitamin B12 concentration at 34 weeks was low [median (25th, 75th), 115 (95, 147) pm]; 75% had low status (<150 pm). Plasma folate was high (mean ± s.d., 33 ± 21 nm); one had a folate concentration <7 pm. Cord plasma vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were higher than and positively associated with maternal concentrations. In stepwise regression, higher child vitamin B12 at 2y was predicted (total R2 15.7%) by pregnancy vitamin B12 (std β 0.201, R2 7.7%), current consumption of cow's milk (std β 0.194, R2 3.3%) and whether breast feeding was stopped before 2y (std β −0.234 R2 7.2%). Child's 2y tHcy concentration was high (11.4 ± 3.6 μm) and predicted by lower pregnancy vitamin B12 (std β −0.206, R2 4.1%), lack of vitamin supplementation (std β −0.256, R2 5.6%) in pregnancy and whether currently breastfed (std β 0.268, R2 8.4%).
Low maternal vitamin B12 status in pregnancy and prolonged breast-feeding results in disturbed one-carbon metabolism in offspring at 2y. Supplementation of women of child-bearing age, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, may improve the homocysteine status of these children.
Experiments demonstrate the ~77× amplification of 0.5 to 3.5-ps pulses of seed light by interaction with Langmuir waves in a low density (1.2 × 1019 cm−3) plasma produced by a 1-ns, 230-J, 1054-nm pump beam with 1.2 × 1014 W/cm2 intensity. The waves are strongly damped (kλD = 0.38, Te = 244 eV) and grow over a ~ 1 mm length, similar to what is experienced by scattered light when it interacts with crossing beams as it exits an ignition target. The amplification reduces when the seed intensity increases above ~1 × 1011 W/cm2, indicating that saturation of the plasma waves on the electron kinetic time scale (<0.5 ps) limits the scatter to ~1% of the available pump energy. The observations are in agreement with 2D PIC simulations in this case.
In India, Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer's Rights Act (PPV&FRA, 2001) requires the registration and protection of new and notified/extant plant varieties based on the criteria of distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) of morphological characteristics. However, these morphological traits have not been able to resolve closely related genotypes. The molecular markers can very well support the DUS testing in such cases. In the present study, therefore, 14 varieties of rice cultivated in Punjab state of India were fingerprinted using 75 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Out of these, 58 primers produced polymorphic profiles, while 13 were monomorphic, 2 revealed null allele and the remaining 2 amplified only from super basmati. In a screen of 7 cultivars, 16 SSR loci produced 17 rare/unique alleles, which provided an opportunity for their unambiguous identification. Cluster analysis based on SSR data clearly distinguished the cultivars into two dist inct groups: comprising non-basmati (group I) and basmati (group II). The cluster pattern was consistent with the pedigree and breeding history of the cultivars.
The aim of this study was to investigate the burden of disease associated with gastroenteric viruses (rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus and enteric adenovirus) using structured surveillance of children aged <6 years in the community. Faecal samples were collected between 2000 and 2003 from 685 children with symptoms of gastroenteritis. The children comprised three groups; 223 in the structured surveillance cohort, 203 in a community cohort and 259 in a cohort of hospitalized children. All samples were tested for the presence of viral pathogens using molecular methods. Questionnaires were sent to the parents/carers of the children recruited to the structured surveillance cohort in order to collect data that would allow an estimation of the severity of illness by means of the Vesikari score, and of the cost associated with gastrointestinal disease in this age group. A viral aetiological agent was detected in 53·5% of samples tested. Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in all three cohorts followed by norovirus and enteric adenoviruses. Multiple viruses were found in 8% of the samples, and commonly involved rotavirus and any other virus. G1P was the most commonly detected rotavirus strain and there was no significant difference in the distribution of rotavirus genotypes among the three cohorts. Analysis of the questionnaires indicated that rotavirus infections were likely to be more severe than any other virus infection, and children from whom a viral pathogen was identified were more likely to require rehydration therapy.
In this paper we attempt to remove the dichotomy created by distinguishing between participatory and non-participatory breeding programmes by using the degree of client orientation as the basis for an analysis. Although all breeding programmes are implicitly client-oriented, we examine how participatory approaches explicitly increase the extent of client orientation. We briefly review the history of participatory plant breeding (PPB) and analyse the participatory techniques used at different stages of the breeding programme. In common with several other authors, we find that farmer involvement in selecting in the segregating generations may not be an essential component of PPB. However, in some circumstances such collaboration is required and is the subject of a second paper in this series. The purpose of all the techniques used in PPB programmes is to better meet the needs of clients. Thus, breeding programmes can be differentiated by their extent of client-orientation removing the dichotomy involved with the term participatory. We discuss four techniques in the suite of techniques that have been employed by PPB: identifying the target market or clients; using germplasm that can best meet the needs of target clients; matching the environments of the target clients; and product testing in the target market with target clients. Most attention is paid to the last of these four that is often referred to as participatory varietal selection (PVS) and how it is done varies with circumstances. Rice varieties from a client-oriented breeding programme in Nepal were tested in mother and baby trials in Bangladesh. The rapid acceptance of these varieties by farmers illustrates the power of the participatory trials system and the success of a highly client-oriented breeding approach.
The synthesis of SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) thin films has been investigated using a superlattice approach. Thin films were deposited on silicon by independent injection of each source to produce Bi2O3/SrTa2O6 superlattices. The effects of post-deposition annealing have been investigated using high-resolution TEM and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) to depth profile the superlattices. X-ray diffraction has also been used to characterize the conversion of the superlattices from distinct layers of Bi2O3 and SrTa2O6 into a polycrystalline layer of strontium bismuth tantalate.
Microelectromechanical flexural structures have been fabricated using sandwiched multi-layers consisting of bundled singled walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) incorporated into silicon nitride (Si3N4) films. The Si3N4-SWNT composite layer was patterned by reactive ion etching followed by release in XeF2 to create freestanding bridge structures. The mechanical stiffness of the micromechanical bridges was monitored via force-displacement (F-D) curves obtained using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Inclusion of SWNTs resulted in an increase in the spring constant of the bridge by as much as 64%, with an average increase of 25%. In a second experiment, micromachined bridges fabricated using dissolved wafer process were coated with debundled SWNTs. The SWNTs suspended in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent were sprayed locally on each bridge using a piezoelectric print head. Resonance frequency measurements were done in vacuum (∼10-4 Torr) on the bridges after successive SWNT depositions. A 20% increase in the resonance frequency of the bridges was observed. The observed increase in stiffness in the first set of experiments as well as the observed increase in the frequency in the second set of experiments can be attributed to the high axial modulus of elasticity (∼1 TPa) of the carbon nanotubes.
In the present work, we report on the fabrication of high quality microcrystalline Si thin films by high-density PECVD technique. The typical deposition rate of the HD-PECVD μ-Si thin films was greater than 350 Å/min in the H2/SiH4 ratio range of 20-100. For a 150-nm-thick film deposited at a H2/SiH4 ratio of 20, the typical microcrystalline volume fraction and the average crystallite size corresponding to <111> orientation were 75% and 160 Å, respectively. The observed growth and properties of the μ-Si thin films show the potential of the high-density PECVD technique for the low temperature processing of high quality films with superior control of bulk and interfacial characteristics.
The dielectric constant of a material is strongly dependent on both the polarizability and the density of the material through the Clausius Mossotti equation. While the atomic polarizability depends on the stoichiometry of the constituent atoms, the molecular polarizability is a function of the atoms’ short range bonding structure and hence can be strongly dependent on processing conditions. Since the density of the material also depends on the thermally activated diffusivity of atoms during processing, varying the processing temperatures has an effect on both the molecular polarizability and the density. The dielectric constant of Zr0.2Sn0.2Ti0.6O2 is shown to be a strong function of the substrate temperature during sputter deposition with the highest value ∼55 at 200 °C and lower values at both higher and lower process temperatures. We have investigated the bonding structure and density of the oxide dielectric deposited at a variety of substrate temperatures in order to elucidate the relative effects of each.