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Interventions in environmental conservation are intended to make things better, not worse. Yet unintended and unanticipated consequences plague environmental conservation; key is how uncertainty plays out. Insights from the intellectual humility literature offer constructive strategies for coming to terms with uncertainty. Strategies such as self-distancing and self-assessment of causal complexity can be incorporated into conservation decision-making processes. Including reflection on what we know and do not know in the decision-making process potentially reduces unintended and unanticipated consequences of environmental conservation and management decisions. An important caution is not to have intellectual humility legitimate failing to act in the face of uncertainty.
Adequate nutrition is necessary during childhood and early adolescence for adequate growth and development. Hence, the objective of the study was to assess the association between dietary intake and blood levels of minerals (calcium, iron, zinc, and selenium) and vitamins (folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, and vitamin D) in urban school going children aged 6–16 years in India, in a multicentric cross-sectional study. Participants were enrolled from randomly selected schools in ten cities. Three-day food intake data was collected using a 24-h dietary recall method. The intake was dichotomised into adequate and inadequate. Blood samples were collected to assess levels of micronutrients. From April 2019 to February 2020, 2428 participants (50⋅2 % females) were recruited from 60 schools. Inadequate intake for calcium was in 93⋅4 % (246⋅5 ± 149⋅4 mg), iron 86⋅5 % (7⋅6 ± 3⋅0 mg), zinc 84⋅0 % (3⋅9 ± 2⋅4 mg), selenium 30⋅2 % (11⋅3 ± 9⋅7 mcg), folate 73⋅8 % (93⋅6 ± 55⋅4 mcg), vitamin B12 94⋅4 % (0⋅2 ± 0⋅4 mcg), vitamin A 96⋅0 % (101⋅7 ± 94⋅1 mcg), and vitamin D 100⋅0 % (0⋅4 ± 0⋅6 mcg). Controlling for sex and socioeconomic status, the odds of biochemical deficiency with inadequate intake for iron [AOR = 1⋅37 (95 % CI 1⋅07–1⋅76)], zinc [AOR = 5⋅14 (95 % CI 2⋅24–11⋅78)], selenium [AOR = 3⋅63 (95 % CI 2⋅70–4⋅89)], folate [AOR = 1⋅59 (95 % CI 1⋅25–2⋅03)], and vitamin B12 [AOR = 1⋅62 (95 %CI 1⋅07–2⋅45)]. Since there is a significant association between the inadequate intake and biochemical deficiencies of iron, zinc, selenium, folate, and vitamin B12, regular surveillance for adequacy of micronutrient intake must be undertaken to identify children at risk of deficiency, for timely intervention.
The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory 7.0.2 (MINI-7) is a widely used tool and known to have sound psychometric properties; but very little is known about its use in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the MINI-7 psychosis items in a sample of 8609 participants across four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.
We examined the latent factor structure and the item difficulty of the MINI-7 psychosis items in the full sample and across four countries.
Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) revealed an adequate fitting unidimensional model for the full sample; however, single group CFAs at the country level revealed that the underlying latent structure of psychosis was not invariant. Specifically, although the unidimensional structure was an adequate model fit for Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Africa, it was a poor fit for Uganda. Instead, a 2-factor latent structure of the MINI-7 psychosis items provided the optimal fit for Uganda. Examination of item difficulties revealed that MINI-7 item K7, measuring visual hallucinations, had the lowest difficulty across the four countries. In contrast, the items with the highest difficulty were different across the four countries, suggesting that MINI-7 items that are the most predictive of being high on the latent factor of psychosis are different for each country.
The present study is the first to provide evidence that the factor structure and item functioning of the MINI-7 psychosis vary across different settings and populations in Africa.
Risk of suicide-related behaviors is elevated among military personnel transitioning to civilian life. An earlier report showed that high-risk U.S. Army soldiers could be identified shortly before this transition with a machine learning model that included predictors from administrative systems, self-report surveys, and geospatial data. Based on this result, a Veterans Affairs and Army initiative was launched to evaluate a suicide-prevention intervention for high-risk transitioning soldiers. To make targeting practical, though, a streamlined model and risk calculator were needed that used only a short series of self-report survey questions.
We revised the original model in a sample of n = 8335 observations from the Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers-Longitudinal Study (STARRS-LS) who participated in one of three Army STARRS 2011–2014 baseline surveys while in service and in one or more subsequent panel surveys (LS1: 2016–2018, LS2: 2018–2019) after leaving service. We trained ensemble machine learning models with constrained numbers of item-level survey predictors in a 70% training sample. The outcome was self-reported post-transition suicide attempts (SA). The models were validated in the 30% test sample.
Twelve-month post-transition SA prevalence was 1.0% (s.e. = 0.1). The best constrained model, with only 17 predictors, had a test sample ROC-AUC of 0.85 (s.e. = 0.03). The 10–30% of respondents with the highest predicted risk included 44.9–92.5% of 12-month SAs.
An accurate SA risk calculator based on a short self-report survey can target transitioning soldiers shortly before leaving service for intervention to prevent post-transition SA.
Quantifying and managing the cumulative effects of human activities on coastal and marine environments is among the foremost challenges in enabling sustainable development in the twenty-first century. As the speed with which these environments are changing increases, there is greater impetus to resolve the evident problems facing governance systems responsible for managing cumulative impacts. Policymakers and regulators recognise the need to assess and manage cumulative effects, as evidenced by widespread legislation requiring cumulative effects assessment (CEA). Yet there is ample evidence that we are not turning the tide in terms of balancing good environmental health with increasing demands of already degraded coastal and marine spaces that are increasingly impacted by climate change. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding scientific and practical advances in CEA, assesses whether these advances are being applied in decision-making and identifies where challenges to implementation exist. Priority research questions are formulated to accelerate the inclusion of effective CEA in marine and coastal planning and management.
The optimal timing of surgical repair for infants with complete atrioventricular canal defect remains controversial, as there are risks to both early and late repair. We address this debate by investigating the association of various risk factors, including age and weight at surgery, markers of failure to thrive, and pulmonary vascular disease, with postoperative length of stay following complete atrioventricular canal repair.
Infants who underwent repair of complete atrioventricular canal were identified from our institutional Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Additional clinical data were collected from the electronic medical record. Descriptive statistics were computed. Associations between postoperative length of stay and covariates of interest were evaluated using linear regression with bootstrap aggregation.
From 2001 to 2020, 150 infants underwent isolated complete atrioventricular canal repair at our institution. Pre-operative failure to thrive and evidence of pulmonary disease were common. Surgical mortality was 2%. In univariable analysis, neither weight nor age at surgery were associated with mortality, postoperative length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or post-operative severe valvular regurgitation. In multivariable analysis of demographic and preoperative clinical factors using bootstrap aggregation, increased postoperative length of stay was only significantly associated with previous pulmonary artery banding (33.9 day increase, p = 0.03) and preoperative use of supplemental oxygen (19.9 day increase, p = 0.03).
Our analysis shows that previous pulmonary artery banding and preoperative use of supplemental oxygen were associated with increased postoperative length of stay after complete atrioventricular canal repair, whereas age and weight were not. These findings suggest operation prior to the onset of pulmonary involvement may be more important than reaching age or weight thresholds.
Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise both show promising moderate impact on cognition and everyday functioning in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise is hypothesized to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and thereby synaptic plasticity, leading to increased learning capacity. Systematic CT should take advantage of increased learning capacity and be more effective when combined with aerobic exercise.
We examined the impact of a 6-month program of cognitive training & exercise (CT&E) compared to cognitive training alone (CT) in 47 first-episode schizophrenia outpatients. All participants were provided the same Posit Science computerized CT, 4 h/week, using BrainHQ and SocialVille programs. The CT&E group also participated in total body circuit training exercises to enhance aerobic conditioning. Clinic and home-based exercise were combined for a target of 150 min per week.
The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite improved significantly more with CT&E than with CT alone (p = 0.04), particularly in the first 3 months (6.5 v. 2.2 T-score points, p < 0.02). Work/school functioning improved substantially more with CT&E than with CT alone by 6 months (p < 0.001). BDNF gain tended to predict the amount of cognitive gain but did not reach significance. The cognitive gain by 3 months predicted the amount of work/school functioning improvement at 6 months. The amount of exercise completed was strongly associated with the degree of cognitive and work/school functioning improvement.
Aerobic exercise significantly enhances the impact of CT on cognition and functional outcome in first-episode schizophrenia, apparently driven by the amount of exercise completed.
Firm-level variables that predict cross-sectional stock returns, such as price-to-earnings and short interest, are often averaged and used to predict market returns. Using various samples of cross-sectional predictors and accounting for the number of predictors and their interdependence, we find only weak evidence that cross-sectional predictors make good time-series predictors, especially out-of-sample. The results suggest that cross-sectional predictors do not generally contain systematic information.
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), due in part to the presence of central venous access devices (CVADs) required to deliver therapy.
To determine the differential risk of bacterial BSI during neutropenia by CVAD type in pediatric patients with AML.
We performed a secondary analysis in a cohort of 560 pediatric patients (1,828 chemotherapy courses) receiving frontline AML chemotherapy at 17 US centers. The exposure was CVAD type at course start: tunneled externalized catheter (TEC), peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), or totally implanted catheter (TIC). The primary outcome was course-specific incident bacterial BSI; secondary outcomes included mucosal barrier injury (MBI)-BSI and non-MBI BSI. Poisson regression was used to compute adjusted rate ratios comparing BSI occurrence during neutropenia by line type, controlling for demographic, clinical, and hospital-level characteristics.
The rate of BSI did not differ by CVAD type: 11 BSIs per 1,000 neutropenic days for TECs, 13.7 for PICCs, and 10.7 for TICs. After adjustment, there was no statistically significant association between CVAD type and BSI: PICC incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75–1.32) and TIC IRR = 0.83 (95% CI, 0.49–1.41) compared to TEC. When MBI and non-MBI were examined separately, results were similar.
In this large, multicenter cohort of pediatric AML patients, we found no difference in the rate of BSI during neutropenia by CVAD type. This may be due to a risk-profile for BSI that is unique to AML patients.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: MiaA is a highly conserved prenyl transferase that catalyzes synthesis of the i6A37 tRNA modification in E. coli. While transcriptional regulation of MiaA is well characterized, there is no information on the MiaA post-transcriptional regulation. The aim of this study is to characterize the post-transcriptional regulation of the MiaA gene in E. coli. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To characterize the post-transcriptional regulation of miaA, we executed a targeted genetic screen of an E. coli small RNA library on a miaA-lacZ translational reporter fusion strain to identify small RNAs (sRNAs) that modulate MiaA translation or transcription termination. We also measured MiaA mRNA levels and miaA-lacZ activity in the absence or over-expression of candidate sRNA regulators of MiaA. We also measured MiaA mRNA levels in the absence of RNaseE and PNPase, two enzymes involved in mRNA turnover. Finally, we measured the ability of purified recombinant CsrA to bind to the MiaA mRNA transcript in vitro. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified the carbon sensing sRNA CsrB and its cognate protein interaction partner CsrA, as potential post-transcriptional regulators of MiaA. Over-expression of CsrB fully repressed miaA-lacZ activity and MiaA mRNA levels. The absence of CsrA resulted in a defective miaA-lacZ activity and a 10-fold decrease in MiaA mRNA levels. We also identified an increase in the MiaA mRNA half-life particularly in the absence of RNaseE. Our results demonstrate an additional layer of regulation for the miaA operon by the CsrA/CsrB protein-sRNA system. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: MiaA is a highly conserved bacterial protein. Our data may represent phenomena in an array of bacteria that could be targeted by novel antibiotics. The human MiaA homologue, TRIT1, plays a role in mitochondrial disorders. We anticipate that information garnered from MiaA studies will elucidate TRIT1 function and its role in mitochondrial disorders.
Electrical injury (EI) is a significant, multifaceted trauma often with multi-domain cognitive sequelae, even when the expected current path does not pass through the brain. Chronic pain (CP) research suggests pain may affect cognition directly and indirectly by influencing emotional distress which then impacts cognitive functioning. As chronic pain may be critical to understanding EI-related cognitive difficulties, the aims of the current study were: examine the direct and indirect effects of pain on cognition following EI and compare the relationship between pain and cognition in EI and CP populations.
This cross-sectional study used data from a clinical sample of 50 patients with EI (84.0% male; Mage = 43.7 years) administered standardized measures of pain (Pain Patient Profile), depression, and neurocognitive functioning. A CP comparison sample of 93 patients was also included.
Higher pain levels were associated with poorer attention/processing speed and executive functioning performance among patients with EI. Depression was significantly correlated with pain and mediated the relationship between pain and attention/processing speed in patients with EI. When comparing the patients with EI and CP, the relationship between pain and cognition was similar for both clinical groups.
Findings indicate that pain impacts mood and cognition in patients with EI, and the influence of pain and its effect on cognition should be considered in the assessment and treatment of patients who have experienced an electrical injury.
Patients with single-ventricle CHD undergo a series of palliative surgeries that culminate in the Fontan procedure. While the Fontan procedure allows most patients to survive to adulthood, the Fontan circulation can eventually lead to multiple cardiac complications and multi-organ dysfunction. Care for adolescents and adults with a Fontan circulation has begun to transition from a primarily cardiac-focused model to care models, which are designed to monitor multiple organ systems, and using clues from this screening, identify patients who are at risk for adverse outcomes. The complexity of care required for these patients led our centre to develop a multidisciplinary Fontan Management Programme with the primary goals of earlier detection and treatment of complications through the development of a cohesive network of diverse medical subspecialists with Fontan expertise.
Research career development awards (CDAs) facilitate development of clinician-scientists. This study compared the academic achievements of individuals in a structured institutional “pre-K” CDA program, the Mayo Clinic Kern Scholars program, with individuals who applied for but were not admitted to the Kern program (“Kern applicants”), and awardees of other unstructured internal CDAs.
This was a longitudinal cohort study of clinicians engaged in research at Mayo Clinic between 2010 and 2019. The primary outcome was time to the 15th new peer-reviewed publication after the program start, adjusted for baseline number of publications. Secondarily, we described successful awarding of federal funding by the NIH or VA.
The median (IQR) number of baseline publications was highest among Kern Scholars compared to Kern Applicants or other CDA awardees [16 (12, 29) vs 5 (1, 11) and 8 (5, 16); P < 0.001]. After adjustment for baseline publications, the time to 15th new publication was significantly shorter for Kern Scholars than for the two comparator groups (P<0.001). Similar findings were observed with total new publications within 5 years (P < 0.001), as well as number of new first-/last-author publications within 5 years (P < 0.001). The overall frequency of K-awards, R-awards (or equivalent), or any funding were similar between groups, with the exception of R03 awards, which were significantly more common among Kern Scholars (P = 0.002).
The Kern Scholars program is a successful training model for clinician-scientists that demonstrated comparatively greater acceleration of scholarly productivity than other internal CDA programs.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers are trained to place endotracheal tubes (ETTs) in the prehospital setting when indicated. Endotracheal tube cuffs are traditionally inflated with 10cc of air to provide adequate seal against the tracheal lumen. There is literature suggesting that many ETTs are inflated well beyond the accepted safe pressures of 20-30cmH2O, leading to potential complications including ischemia, necrosis, scarring, and stenosis of the tracheal wall. Currently, EMS providers do not routinely check ETT cuff pressures. It was hypothesized that the average ETT cuff pressure of patients arriving at the study site who were intubated by EMS exceeds the safe pressure range of 20-30cmH2O.
While ETT cuff inflation is necessary to close the respiratory system, thus preventing air leaks and aspiration, there is evidence to suggest that over-inflated ETT cuffs can cause long-term complications. The purpose of this study is to characterize the cuff pressures of ETTs placed by EMS providers.
This project was a single center, prospective observational study. Endotracheal tube cuff pressures were measured and recorded for adult patients intubated by EMS providers prior to arrival at a large, urban, tertiary care center over a nine-month period. All data were collected by respiratory therapists utilizing a cuff pressure measurement device which had a detectable range of 0-100cmH2O and was designed as a syringe. Results including basic patient demographics, cuff pressure, tube size, and EMS service were recorded.
In total, 45 measurements from six EMS services were included with ETT sizes ranging from 6.5-8.0mm. Mean patient age was 52.2 years (67.7% male). Mean cuff pressure was 81.8cmH2O with a range of 15 to 100 and a median of 100. The mode was 100cmH2O; 40 out of 45 (88.9%) cuff pressures were above 30cmH2O. Linear regression showed no correlation between age and ETT cuff pressure or between ETT size and cuff pressure. Two-tailed T tests did not show a significant difference in the mean cuff pressure between female versus male patients.
An overwhelming majority of prehospital intubations are associated with elevated cuff pressures, and cuff pressure monitoring education is indicated to address this phenomenon.
This paper characterizes novel “star” defects in GaN films grown with metal–organic vapor phase deposition (MOVPE) on GaN substrates with electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) and high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HREBSD). These defects are hundreds of microns in size and tend to aggregate threading dislocations at their centers. They are the intersection of six nearly ideal low-angle tilt boundaries composed of $\langle a\rangle$-type pyramidal edge dislocations, each on a unique slip system.
To stop transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in association with myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) at a cardiology clinic.
Outbreak investigation and quasispecies analysis of HCV hypervariable region 1 genome.
Outpatient cardiology clinic.
Patients undergoing MPI.
Case patients met definitions for HBV or HCV infection. Cases were identified through surveillance registry cross-matching against clinic records and serological screening. Observations of clinic practices were performed.
During 2012–2014, 7 cases of HCV and 4 cases of HBV occurred in 4 distinct clusters among patients at a cardiology clinic. Among 3 case patients with HCV infection who had MPI on June 25, 2014, 2 had 98.48% genetic identity of HCV RNA. Among 4 case patients with HCV infection who had MPI on March 13, 2014, 3 had 96.96%–99.24% molecular identity of HCV RNA. Also, 2 clusters of 2 patients each with HBV infection had MPI on March 7, 2012, and December 4, 2014. Clinic staff reused saline vials for >1 patient. No infection control breaches were identified at the compounding pharmacy that supplied the clinic. Patients seen in clinic through March 27, 2015, were encouraged to seek testing for HBV, HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus. The clinic switched to all single-dose medications and single-use intravenous flushes on March 27, 2015, and no further cases were identified.
This prolonged healthcare-associated outbreak of HBV and HCV was most likely related to breaches in injection safety. Providers should follow injection safety guidelines in all practice settings.
We argue that there is a conflict among classical theism's commitments to divine simplicity, divine creative freedom, and omniscience. We start by defining key terms for the debate related to classical theism. Then we articulate a new argument, the Aloneness Argument, aiming to establish a conflict among these attributes. In broad outline, the argument proceeds as follows. Under classical theism, it's possible that God exists without anything apart from Him. Any knowledge God has in such a world would be wholly intrinsic. But there are contingent truths in every world, including the world in which God exists alone. So, it's possible that God (given His omniscience) contingently has wholly intrinsic knowledge. But whatever is contingent and wholly intrinsic is an accident. So, God possibly has an accident. This is incompatible with classical theism. Finally, we consider and rebut several objections.