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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
Maarten Prak's Citizens without Nations merits praise for what he has added to our understanding of early modern and modern European history. He presents persuasive arguments and evidence for how variations among early modern European cities and their citizens together with subsequent variations among relations between cities and state shaped the modern relations between European national states and their citizens. Prak also extends the concept of citizenship to China and the Ottoman Empire where neither the ideological, nor the institutional features of European citizenship existed by discussing Chinese and Ottoman urban social, economic, and political practices that in early modern Europe relate to citizenship. Such a move makes invisible the early modern ideological and institutional foundations of the Chinese and Ottoman practices he recounts. It additionally creates the problem of determining how, if at all, what he calls Chinese and Ottoman citizenship mattered to nineteenth-century Chinese and Ottoman subjects as they encountered for the first time Western notions of citizenship. In order to write global history, we need more studies of Chinese, Ottoman, and other histories, which explain the changing political architecture of relations between people and those who ruled them to complement what Maarten Prak's fine study of citizens without nations gives us for European history.
Commenting on Christopher Bayly's Remaking the Modern World, 1900–2015 is a bittersweet exercise. My assignment for this forum is to consider Remaking the Modern World, 1900–2015 from the vantage point of China studies. I will do so by framing my remarks with respect to some of the ways this major South Asia historian took his expertise into larger projects, the last of which is the volume under discussion.
This chapter discusses the basic mechanism of global industrialization with reference to how local resource constraints were eased through the introduction of modern technology and institutions in core regions of the world. The adoption of a multipolar perspective implies a degree of departure from the existing literature. The chapter reviews the early modern European economic development from a reciprocal comparative perspective. According to Eric Jones and others, Europe as a region achieved a series of major technological and institutional innovations, worth calling the 'European miracle', between 1400 and 1800. In describing postwar economic development up to 1980, Harry Oshima stressed the common socio-environmental characteristics of monsoon Asia, stretching from East and Southeast Asia to South Asia. The character of the Asian path originates from the unique environment, with differences between East Asia and South Asia. The chapter speculates whether ongoing industrialization will be a threat to global environmental sustainability.
This chapter considers the global social and political context that a common climate-induced general crisis in the seventeenth century set for economic activities. It explores the parallel and distinct dimensions of the expansions of early modern commerce in Europe and East Asia, elements of which are central to the changes in the consumption behavior of Europeans that is a basic trait of the European industrious revolution. In China, the absence of corporate elite identities found in both Europe and Japan meant that the passage of merchant wealth into literati elite status faced fewer institutional barriers. For England, being a high wage economy provided the economic rationale to develop laborsaving machinery. The shift from commercial capitalism to industrial capitalism is also the moment when data for workers adding hours to their daily routine become available. The direct evidence for workers extending their work hours comes from Britain and from a longer working day coming as industrialization begins between 1760 and 1820.
Dans un livre marquant – Growing public – Peter Lindert propose d’analyser les dépenses publiques de redistribution en examinant l’économie politique des mesures prises dans un large éventail de pays au cours des trois derniers siècles. L’ambition est de rendre compte de l’histoire des politiques sociales, du rythme de leur développement, de leurs variations d’un pays à l’autre et des effets qu’elles ont eus.
Par l’éclairage nouveau qu’il apporte sur l’histoire de cet ensemble de transferts – des dépenses d’assistance aux pauvres ou d’éducation jusqu’aux formes actuelles de sécurité sociale –, le livre appelle au débat. Comme l’auteur a construit son enquête sur un modèle dont il dégage les éléments à partir de l’examen minutieux des expériences divergentes des pays d’Europe de l’ouest depuis le XVIIIe siècle, une façon de mettre à l’épreuve sa démarche consiste à se demander si ses conclusions sont tributaires des limites spatiales et temporelles qu’il a retenues. C’est ce que tentent ici R. Bin Wong et Gilles Postel-Vinay. L’un déplace l’analyse vers d’autres espaces – en l’occurrence la Chine – l’autre revient sur les expériences européennes soit en les situant dans une durée plus longue soit en faisant varier l’échelle de l’analyse pour se situer au niveau le plus décentralisé auquel sont prises les décisions. Peter Lindert répond à l’un et l’autre.
Rightful Resistance in Rural China. By Kevin J. O'Brien and Lianjiang Li. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 200 pages. $70.00 cloth, $24.99 paper.
Studies of contemporary China move between two poles of presentation—richly detailed analyses of phenomena that seem specific to China and more sweeping panaromas that leap to broad generalities without always marking their steps forward clearly. Kevin J. O'Brien and Lianjiang Li offer an insightful study of collective action in contemporary China that successfully steers a course between the typical extremes. Their work is solidly anchored in years of research in the Chinese countryside, where they have conducted interviews and administered surveys, and about which they have read government documents and the press. This work also takes into account the growing amount of scholarship being produced by the Chinese themselves. And most helpful to their efforts of explaining Chinese cases to a broader audience, their analysis consistently engages the literature on collective action conceptualized principally out of studies of advanced industrial societies and the histories of those societies.