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Loneliness functionally varies and is determined by the degree of interaction with others. We examined weekly fluctuations in reported loneliness as a function of frequency of social interactions in old age. We hypothesized that emotional and social components of loneliness would be related to different types of social relationships.
Participants reported their feeling of loneliness and their social interaction quantity (frequency of meetings) via a weekly based diary, over 6 weeks.
The study included 55 older adults with different dwelling arrangements (M = 73.4, SD = 6.97).
Measures of Loneliness (the De Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale), Social Interaction and Contact, and sociodemographic parameters were used.
Social and emotional loneliness fluctuated over the course of the 6-week study. Frequency of meeting friends was related to emotional loneliness and total feelings of loneliness. Frequency of meeting close/trusted figures was related to emotional loneliness which appeared the following week. Other variables were not associated with either changes in loneliness or its dimensions.
Loneliness in old age is changeable. The emotional component of loneliness seems to be dominant in determining overall feelings of loneliness and is more sensitive to externally chosen social interaction.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Current practice guidelines offer a variety of treatment options for sternal reconstruction but complications and infections remain a serious surgical problem. This work seeks to provide a comprehensive picture of the com-morbidities and reconstructive methods that lead to success and improve patient outcomes. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Patients that undergo cardiac surgery via the median sternotomy approach are at risk of wound complications that require repair. We seek to evaluate how outcomes of sternal reconstruction are influenced by patient comorbidities, flap usage and internal mammary artery grafts and methods of sternal closure. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We identified patients between 2005 and 2020 who underwent sternotomy followed by debridement and flap coverage at our institution. Comorbidities, method of reconstruction, demographic data, surgical history, and other factors pertaining to mortality and morbidity were collected. The data will then be analyzed to identify population characteristics using logistic regression variables to determine univariate and adjusted multivariable measures of association with mortality. We present the pre-liminary data analyzed using chi-square and one-way anova in R. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In this study we present a preliminary characterization of one institution’s sternal reconstruction patient outcomes with a variety of reconstruction methods including pectoralis advancement flaps, omental flaps and latissumus dorsi flaps. Notable preoperative comorbidities include 50% of patients > age 60, 18% with diabetes mellitus, 18 % with diagnosed hypertension, 18% with COPD, and 9% with a smoking history DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: In an evolving cardiothoracic landscape, clinical characteristics of patients being treated for sternal reconstructive surgery present a moving target. Understanding current risk factors, preoperative management and timing for aggressive surgical treatment offers an opportunity to update treatment protocol and maximize successful outcomes.
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system, mainly affecting motor functions including the voice. The aetiology of dysphonia changes throughout the course of disease progression.
This study aimed to determine the laryngeal changes seen in early-, mid- and late-stage Parkinson's disease. Thirteen patients with Parkinson's disease are presented, representing the largest series of voice patients with Parkinson's disease seen in a voice clinic in the literature.
Age, gender, severity of handicap caused by voice disorder and possible associated reflux symptoms were examined.
Laryngeal function appeared to change gradually with progression of the disease, and may have been affected by the presence of pre-existing laryngeal pathology.
Laryngeal function in Parkinson's disease appears to go through a series of changes that may be helped by both therapeutic and surgical interventions. These patients should be treated within the confines of a voice clinic multidisciplinary model.
The authors present clinical experience with 28 cases of ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysms managed personally during a 36 month period, and 10 unruptured ACA aneurysms. The cases included five giant aneurysms and four distal ACA aneurysms. Management strategy was uniform and included early operative intervention (except in the setting of deteriorating neurologic deficit, not attributable to hydrocephalus or hematoma), and vasospasm prophylaxis including calcium channel blockers and hypervolemic hemodilution and arterial hypertension. Modern diagnostic adjuncts including transcranial doppler were used as they became available. Good outcome (outcome grade 1 or 2) was observed at 6 months in 71% (20/28) of ruptured cases and in 90% (9/10) of unruptured cases; fair outcome (outcome grade 3) was observed in 14% (4/28) of ruptured cases and in 10% of unruptured cases; bad outcome (outcome grade 4 or 5) was observed in 14% (4/28) of ruptured cases. There were no instances of rebleeding after admission to the hospital. There was a single mortality in a patient moribund on admission. Delayed ischemic deterioration (DID) was documented in 46% (13 of 28) of the ruptured cases, and was a major source of morbidity in 7 of the 9 instances of fair or poor outcome in the series. Management outcome, including the occurrence of subtle neuropsychological difficulties commonly described in cases with ACA aneurysms, is discussed with relation to the incidence of DID, the clinical course of DID, and the possible impact of various therapeutic strategies.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry. IBV is a commonly occurring, economically significant pathogen of commercial chicken. Economic consequences to the poultry industry comprise mortality, growth retardation and high condemnation rates in meat-type birds. In addition, decreased egg production, reduced internal and external egg quality, and reduced hatchability have been documented in layers and breeders affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. Apart from this some nephro-pathogenic strains cause kidney damage. Secondary pathogens can complicate the disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Being a single stranded RNA virus, IBV has an enormous capacity to change both by spontaneous mutation and by genetic recombination resulting into the emergence of new variants. Since the first isolation of virus in 1937, it has been found almost all over the world. In addition, most countries are now known to have their own indigenous IBV variants. Despite the use of currently available live and inactivated vaccines, one of the most important difficulties to control IB is related to emergence of variant strains. The following paper reviews the current status of research into IBV.
Maternal infection is associated with oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory responses. We have previously shown that maternal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at E18 alters the subsequent offspring immune response. As immune responses are mediated, in part, by OS, we sought to determine if maternal inflammation during pregnancy programs offspring OS and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of saline or LPS at 18 days’ gestation (n = 4), and pups delivered spontaneously at term. At postnatal day 24, male and female offspring received i.p. injection of LPS. Serum lipid peroxides formation (PD) and CRP levels were determined before and at 4 h following the LPS injection. Pups of LPS-exposed dams had significantly higher basal OS (PD 29.4 ± 5.4 v. 10.1 ± 4.8 nmol/ml) compared with controls. In response to LPS, CRP levels (20.4 ± 2.8 v. 5.7 ± 1.0 ng/ml) were significantly higher among pups of LPS-exposed dams than controls. Prenatal maternal exposure to LPS increases baseline OS levels in neonates and CRP levels in response to LPS. These results suggest that maternal inflammation during the antenatal period may induce long-term sequelae in the offspring that may predispose to adult disease.
Topical medicaments used by patients with diseases of the skin were examined for microbial contamination. Ps. aeruginosa was isolated from stock pots of a diluted emulsifying ointment used as a soap substitute in the bath. Cross-con tamination between patients and medicament was subsequently shown to have occurred.
Topical medicaments used in the treatment and prevention of pressure sores in patients in three hospitals were examined for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus contamination. Contamination rates were found to vary between hospitals and were affected by differences in the packaging of the product and in the method of application used by the nursing staff.
A number of cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure. Genetic polymorphisms of several cytokine genes are known to result in altered gene expression, enabling us to characterize patients as "high" or "low" producers of specific cytokines. We speculate that the cytokine genotypes for a population of children who underwent heart transplantation for end-stage ventricular failure due to cardiomyopathy or congenital heart disease would be enriched for "high producers" of pro-inflammatory cytokines and "low producers" of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Methods: Cytokine genotyping was performed for the following cytokines on 94 transplanted children using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific technique: tumor necrosis factor-α (−308), interleukin 10 (−1082, −819, −592), interleukin 6 (−174), transforming growth factor-β1(codons 10 & 25), and interferon-γ (+874). Patients with ventricular failure after transplantation for dilated cardiomyopathy, numbering 37, or for congenital heart disease, numbering 34, were compared to 15 children transplanted for structural disease, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome, without ventricular failure, and to data from healthy children. An additional 8 children with restrictive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were also studied. Results: No differences in genotypic distribution were seen between the groups, and all patients were comparable to genotypic distributions as assessed from published normal data. Conclusion: No evidence is found to support the hypothesis that these polymorphisms for cytokine genes influence progression to end-stage heart failure in children undergoing transplantation because of cardiomyopathy or congenital heart disease.
The synthesis of SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) thin films has been investigated using a superlattice approach. Thin films were deposited on silicon by independent injection of each source to produce Bi2O3/SrTa2O6 superlattices. The effects of post-deposition annealing have been investigated using high-resolution TEM and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) to depth profile the superlattices. X-ray diffraction has also been used to characterize the conversion of the superlattices from distinct layers of Bi2O3 and SrTa2O6 into a polycrystalline layer of strontium bismuth tantalate.
In Palestine, there has been an increase in the reported incidence of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection since 1995. Since overt clinical disease occurs only among adults, questions were raised whether or not a shift in the epidemiology of HAV has occurred. This is generally characterized by a decrease in the overall incidence rate and a shifting in the mean age of infection towards adolescence and early adulthood. The need for a vaccination programme is being discussed. To resolve this issue, we examined the prevalence of anti-HAV in a representative sample of 396 school children in the Gaza Strip. The prevalence of anti-HAV was 93·7% (95% CI: 91·3, 96·1%). Stratifying the prevalence by age showed that 87·8% (95% CI: 78·6, 97%) were HAV antibody positive by the age of 6. By the age of 14, almost 98% (95% CI: 92·7, 100%) were HAV antibody positive. This means that the majority of HAV infection is still taking place in early childhood, when it is usually asymptomatic and of little clinical significance. The results refuted the shifting epidemiology theory and we recommend that a vaccination programme against HAV infection is not yet needed. Alternative explanations for the increase in reported cases are discussed.
Background. The patients' ability to appraise their
quality of life in schizophrenia was studied by
examining the reliability and the validity of self-rated quality of
Methods. Sixty-three symptomatically stable patients with
schizophrenia (DSM-IV) receiving
maintenance treatment were evaluated over a 4-week period. The
subjects were asked to appraise
their quality of life at weekly intervals on a single item global
quality of life measure, as well as the
self-administered sickness impact profile. The patients' quality
of life was also rated by a clinician
using the social performance schedule and the global assessment
scale of functioning; and clinical
aspects such as the severity of psychotic symptoms, neurocognitive
deficits, dose of medications,
and side effects were documented with standardized measures.
Results. The results indicated that the patients'
self-reports were highly consistent over the 4 weeks,
and the quality of life ratings correlated significantly with the
clinician's estimates. The patients'
quality of life was predictably influenced by the severity of their
symptoms, side effects, cognitive
deficits and the dose of their antipsychotic medication, but the
reliability of their reports was not materially affected by these factors.
Conclusions. It is concluded that clinically compliant and
stable patients with schizophrenia can
evaluate and report their quality of life with a high degree of
reliability and concurrent validity,
implying that self-report measures are potentially useful tools in
clinical trials and outcome studies.
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