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Identifying dietary patterns in different environments attended by children is relevant to guide public politics. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors associated with dietary patterns of children under 2 years of age in childcare centres and at homes. This transversal study was enrolled in municipal childcare centres of Guaratuba, Paraná, Brazil. Food consumption data from 256 children were obtained by the food record method. From the consumption data, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis using the principal component method in each environment. ‘Traditional’ patterns were observed in both environments; the ‘less healthy’ pattern was found only at homes. Other patterns identified in childcare centres include ‘snacks’, ‘nutritive’ and ‘pasta and meats’; at homes, it was possible to identify patterns such as ‘milk and cereals’ and ‘mixed’. Children over 12 months presented higher scores for all the patterns in both environments. Obese children had lower scores for all the patterns in childcare centres. There was an association between maternal age below 21 years and higher adherence to a ‘less healthy’ pattern, maternal level of education less than 8 years and lower adherence to the ‘mixed’ pattern and lower familiar income per capita and higher adherence to the ‘snacks’ and ‘traditional’ patterns in childcare centres. In conclusion, adherence to dietary patterns was associated with socio-economic, demographic variables and nutritional status and further studies are needed, especially those with a longitudinal design, enabling the monitoring of dietary patterns.
The retention of human milk (HM) fat in nasogastric probes of infusion pumps can be observed during the feed of infants unable to suck at the mother’s breast. The lack of homogenisation of HM could contribute to the fat holding. Therefore, the present study evaluated (i) the influence of homogenisation on milk fat retaining in infant feeding probes and (ii) the in vivo effect of the homogenisation on lipid absorption by Wistar rats. The animals were fed with HM treated following two processing conditions, that is, pasteurised and homogenised–pasteurised. The animals were randomly subdivided into four experimental groups: water-fed (control), pasteurised milk, homogenised–pasteurised milk and pasteurised–skimmed milk. The results of food consumption, mass body gain, corporate metrics and plasma blood levels of total cholesterol did not show any difference (P < 0·05) among the three types of HM used in the experiments. The liver, intestine and intra-abdominal adipose tissue of the four groups of animals presented normal and healthy histology. The composition of fatty acids in the brain tissue of animals fed with homogenised HM increased when compared with the groups fed with non-homogenised HM. These values were 11·08 % higher for arachidonic acids, 6·59 % for DAH and 47·92 % for nervous acids. The ingestion of homogenised HM promoted higher absorption of milk nutrients. Therefore, the addition of the homogenisation stage in HM processing could be an alternative to reduce fat retention in probes and to improve the lipids’ absorption in the body.
The production of specialty coffee has several factors and parameters that are added up in the course of production, so that the quality is expressed in the act of consumption. Based on this scenario, this study included the analysis of ten genotypes of arabica coffee, the materials being subjected to irrigated and rainfed water regimes, in a low altitude region, to identify responses for sensory and physical–chemical quality. The genotypes were evaluated in a split-plot scheme with a randomized block design, with three replications. Arabica coffee fruits were harvested with 80% cherry seeds and processed by the wet method. Subsequently, the characteristics related to physical–chemical and sensory analyses were evaluated. The genotypes of the Paraíso group showed great variability for the physical–chemical and sensory variables for rainfed and irrigated regimes. The genotypes of the Catuaí group, however, showed less variability for sensory characteristics in both cultivation environments and for physical–chemical characteristics in the irrigated regime. In the sensorial data set, the genotypes Catuaí 144 CCF and Catuaí 144 SFC (when irrigated) and Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-2, Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-11 and Catucaí 24-137 (rainfed cultivation), are more favourable to the production of specialty coffee at low altitude.
Seeds of Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) species lose water after dispersal, increasing the proportion of water-impermeable seeds (physical dormancy, PY). However, changes in testa structure during this process remain unknown. The present study investigated how variation in relative humidity (RH) during the post-dispersion period affects the proportion of seeds of Erythrina speciosa with PY. Seeds from two populations were stored in drier (40% RH) and wetter (80% RH) environments and periodically subjected to physiological analysis (seed water content, imbibition and germination) and structural analysis of the testa (light and scanning electron microscopy). Drier storage resulted in seed dehydration, increasing the proportion of water-impermeable seeds and closure of cracks in the mucilaginous stratum. In contrast, wetter storage led to an increase in seed water content, a decrease in the proportion of seeds with PY, and the formation of cracks. As a result of variation in environmental humidity, we conclude that changes occur in the mucilaginous stratum of seeds, altering water loss and, consequently, the proportion of seeds with PY. Environments with low humidity cause a decrease in seed water content, the closing of cracks in the mucilaginous stratum, and, consequently, an increase in the proportion of water-impermeable seeds. On the other hand, a high RH environment increases the seed water content and the formation of superficial cracks, through which water enters during imbibition, causing a decrease in the proportion of seeds with PY.
To evaluate energetic contribution according to the degree of industrial food processing and its association with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics in adolescents.
Cross-sectional study (Adolescent Lifestyle Study). Food consumption was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, with foods classified by degree of industrial progressing. The usual diet was estimated using the Multiple Source Method. In a linear regression model, the energy percentage (E %) was associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics, after adjustment for sex and age.
Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
Eight hundred and four adolescents, of both sexes, 14–19 years of age, enrolled in public schools.
The E % of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to 43·1 %, processed foods to 11·0 % and the ultraprocessed foods to 45·9 %. E % of unprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = −0·093; P = 0·032), neck circumference (adjusted β = 0·017; P = 0·049), screen time (adjusted β = −0·247; P = 0·036) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = −0·156; P = 0·003). E % of ultraprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = 0·118; P = 0·011), screen time (adjusted β = 0·375; P = 0·003), BMI (adjusted β = −0·029; P = 0·025), neck circumference (adjusted β = −0·017; P = 0·028) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = 0·150; P = 0·002).
There was a high E % of ultraprocessed foods in the diet of the adolescents. Actions are needed to raise the awareness of adopting healthy eating habits.
Trypanosoma cruzi has three biochemically and morphologically distinct developmental stages that are programmed to rapidly respond to environmental changes the parasite faces during its life cycle. Unlike other eukaryotes, Trypanosomatid genomes contain protein coding genes that are transcribed into polycistronic pre-mRNAs and have their expression controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcriptome analyses comparing three stages of the T. cruzi life cycle revealed changes in gene expression that reflect the parasite adaptation to distinct environments. Several genes encoding RNA binding proteins (RBPs), known to act as key post-transcriptional regulatory factors, were also differentially expressed. We characterized one T. cruzi RBP, named TcZH3H12, which contains a zinc finger domain and is up-regulated in epimastigotes compared to trypomastigotes and amastigotes. TcZC3H12 knockout (KO) epimastigotes showed decreased growth rates and increased capacity to differentiate into metacyclic trypomastigotes. Transcriptome analyses comparing wild type and TcZC3H12 KOs revealed a TcZC3H12-dependent expression of epimastigote-specific genes such as genes encoding amino acid transporters and proteins associated with differentiation (PADs). RNA immunoprecipitation assays showed that transcripts from the PAD family interact with TcZC3H12. Taken together, these findings suggest that TcZC3H12 positively regulates the expression of genes involved in epimastigote proliferation and also acts as a negative regulator of metacyclogenesis.
The aim of the study was to assess the inflammatory potential of the Brazilian population’s diet and its association with demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric characteristics. A cross-sectional study was performed with 34 003 individuals aged 10 years and older, evaluated by the National Diet and Nutrition Survey from the Consumer Expenditure Survey (POF 2008–2009). The Energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII™) was determined using thirty-four dietary parameters calculated through non-consecutive 2-d dietary records. Positive scores indicate a pro-inflammatory diet, while negative scores indicate an anti-inflammatory diet. A bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis based on a hierarchical theoretical model was performed to verify the factors associated with the E-DII. The mean of the E-DII was 1·04 (range of −4·77 to +5·98). The highest values of the pro-inflammatory E-DII were found among adolescents (1·42; P < 0·001) and individuals with higher income (1·10; P < 0·001) and level of education (1·18; P < 0·001). In the final model, the E-DII was associated with higher income quartiles and was higher in the Northeast and South regions, in white people, individuals with ≥9 years of education and adults and adolescents age group. The Brazilian population consumes a diet with high inflammatory potential, especially adolescents, white people and those with higher income and level of education. Thus, the index presented uneven distribution among the population, emphasising groups with higher dietary inflammatory potential. The socio-economic risk profile of a diet with higher inflammatory potential in medium-income countries is different from what is observed in high-income nations.
Background: Based on data obtained from hospitals in the city of Belo Horizonte (population ~3,000,000), we evaluated relevant factors such as death, age, duration of surgery, potential for contamination and surgical site infection, plastic surgery, and craniotomy. The possibility of predicting surgical site infection (SSI) was then analyzed using pattern recognition algorithms based on MLP (multilayer perceptron). Methods: Data were collected by the hospital infection control committees (CCIHs) in hospitals in Belo Horizonte between 2016 and 2018. The noisy records were filtered, and the occurrences were analyzed. Finally, the predictive power of SSI of 5 types MLP was evaluated experimentally: momentum, backpropagation standard, weight decay, resilient propagation, and quick propagation. The model used 3, 5, 7, and 10 neurons in the occult layer and with resamples varied the number of records for testing (65% and 75%) and for validation (35% and 25%). Comparisons were made by measuring the AUC (area under the curve (range, 0–1). Results: From 1,096 records of craniotomy, 289 were usable for analysis. Moreover, 16% died; averaged age was 56 years (range, 40–65); mean time of surgery was 186 minutes (range, 95–250 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (90.6%) to 8 (0.3%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 2.7% contaminated, 23.5% potentially contaminated, 72.3% clean. The SSI rate reached 4%. The prediction process in AUCs ranged from 0.7 to 0.994. In plastic surgery, from 3,693 records, 1,099 were intact, with only 1 case of SSI and no deaths. The average age for plastic surgery was 41 years (range, 16–91); the average time of surgery was 218.5 minutes (range, 19–580 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (77.4%) to 6 times (0.001%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 27.90% potential contamination, 1.67% contaminated, and 0.84% infected. The prediction process ranged in AUCs from 0.2 to 0.4. Conclusions: We identified a high noise index in both surgeries due to subjectivity at the time of data collection. The profiles of each surgery in the statistical analyses were different, which was reflected in the analyzed structures. The MLP for craniotomy surgery demonstrated relevant predictive power and can guide intelligent monitoring software (available in www.sacihweb.com). However, for plastic surgeries, MLPs need more SSI samples to optimize outcomes. To optimize data collection and to enable other hospitals to use the SSI prediction tool, a mobile application was developed.
It was aimed to simultaneously study standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan (Trp) and lysine (Lys) for gilts. A digestibility assay was previously conducted to determine the SID amino acid in the basal diet (low levels of SID Trp and Lys). Sixty-four gilts (15.04 ± 1.44 kg) were allotted to 16 diets in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement (1.55, 1.85, 2.15 and 2.45 g/kg SID Trp and 9.72, 11.12, 12.52 and 13.92 g/kg SID Lys) with four replicates per treatment. Performance, longissimus muscle (LM), backfat thickness (BF) and blood variables were evaluated. An interaction was observed for G:F, and by response surface model, the optimum Trp level was achieved at 2.15 g/kg (0.159 g/MJ of ME). A quadratic effect of Trp was observed on body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG); the daily feed intake increased linearly as Trp increased. The optimum Trp levels of 2.25 and 2.24 g/kg were estimated for BW and ADG, respectively. The BF increased with increasing levels of Trp. There was a quadratic and linear effect of Trp and Lys, respectively, on the LM, in which the optimum Trp level was determined as 2.05 g/kg in the diet. Plasma urea nitrogen decreased as Trp and Lys levels increased. Using estimates provided by response surface, maximized G:F ratio was obtained at 2.15 g SID Trp/kg of diet and at least 13.92 g SID Lys/kg of diet is necessary to optimize the G:F for 15–30 kg gilts, providing a Trp:Lys ratio of 15.4:100.
A stakeholder survey was conducted from April through June of 2018 to understand stakeholders’ perceptions and challenges about cropping systems and weed management in Brazil. The dominant crops managed by survey respondents were soybean (73%) and corn (66%). Approximately 75% of survey respondents have grown or managed annual cropping systems with two to three crops per year cultivated in succession. Eighteen percent of respondents manage only irrigated cropping systems, and over 60% of respondents adopt no-till as a standard practice. According to respondents, the top five troublesome weed species in Brazilian cropping systems are horseweed (asthmaweed, Canadian horseweed, and tall fleabane), sourgrass, morningglory, goosegrass, and dayflower (Asiatic dayflower and Benghal dayflower). Among the nine species documented to have evolved resistance to glyphosate in Brazil, horseweed and sourgrass were reported as the most concerning weeds. Other than glyphosate, 31% and 78% of respondents, respectively, manage weeds resistant to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors and/or acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors. Besides herbicides, 45% of respondents use mechanical, and 75% use cultural (e.g., no-till, crop rotation/succession) weed control strategies. Sixty-one percent of survey respondents adopt cover crops to some extent to suppress weeds and improve soil chemical and physical properties. Nearly 60% of survey respondents intend to adopt the crops that are resistant to dicamba or 2,4-D when available. Results may help practitioners, academics, industry, and policy makers to better understand the bad and the good of current cropping systems and weed management practices adopted in Brazil, and to adjust research, education, technologies priorities, and needs moving forward.
The production of beef cattle in the Atlantic Forest biome mostly takes place in pastoral production systems. There are millions of hectares covered with pastures in this biome, including degraded pasture (DP), and only small area of the original Atlantic Forest has been preserved in tropics, implying that actions must be taken by the livestock sector to improve sustainability. Intensification makes it possible to produce the same amount, or more beef, in a smaller area; however, the environmental impacts must be assessed. Regarding climate change, the C dynamics is essential to define which beef cattle systems are sustainable. The objectives of this study were to investigate the C balance (t CO2e./ha per year), the intensity of C emission (kg CO2e./kg BW or carcass) and the C footprint (t CO2e./ha per year) of pasture-based beef cattle production systems, inside the farm gate and considering the inputs. The results were used to calculate the number of trees to be planted in beef cattle production systems to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The GHG emission and C balance, for 2 years, were calculated based on the global warming potential (GWP) of AR4 and GWP of AR5. Forty-eight steers were allotted to four grazing systems: DP, irrigated high stocking rate pasture (IHS), rainfed high stocking rate pasture (RHS) and rainfed medium stocking rate pasture (RMS). The rainfed systems (RHS and RMS) presented the lowest C footprints (−1.22 and 0.45 t CO2e./ha per year, respectively), with C credits to RMS when using the GWP of AR4. The IHS system showed less favorable results for C footprint (−15.71 t CO2e./ha per year), but results were better when emissions were expressed in relation to the annual BW gain (−10.21 kg CO2e./kg BW) because of its higher yield. Although the DP system had an intermediate result for C footprint (−6.23 t CO2e./ha per year), the result was the worst (−30.21 CO2e./kg BW) when the index was expressed in relation to the annual BW gain, because in addition to GHG emissions from the animals in the system there were also losses in the annual rate of C sequestration. Notably, the intensification in pasture management had a land-saving effect (3.63 ha for IHS, 1.90 for RHS and 1.19 for RMS), contributing to the preservation of the tropical forest.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cactus (Opuntia spp) levels in total mixed ration silages based on Cactus and Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud) on the fermentation profile, microbial populations, aerobic stability and taxonomic diversity. The completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 4 factorial design with four replications, being four rations with different levels of Cactus (15, 30, 45, 60% based on the dry matter) and four opening periods (0, 15, 30 and 60 days of fermentation). An interaction effect (P < 0.050) was observed among the diets and opening times for mould and yeast populations. An interaction effect for the levels of acetic acid was observed, where the diets 15, 30, 45 and 60% showed higher values at 60 days (0.44, 0.41, 0.35 and 0.40 g/kg DM, respectively). A significant difference was observed for the richness and diversity index (Chao1 and Shannon). The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Lactobacillus and Weissella. Cactus can be added in total mixed ration silages up to the level of 60% in a way that it positively affects the qualitative indicators of the silages, modulating the taxonomic communities and allowing the predominance of important groups for preservation of the ensiled mass.
The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
We evaluated the differences between the supplementation of urea in rumen and/or abomasum on forage digestion, N metabolism and urea kinetics in cattle fed a low-quality tropical forage. Five Nellore heifers were fitted with rumen and abomasum fistulas and assigned to a Latin square design. The treatments were control, continuous infusion of urea in the abomasum (AC), continuous infusion of urea in the rumen, a pulse dose of urea in the rumen every 12 h (PR) and a combination of PR and AC. The control exhibited the lowest (P < 0·10) faecal and urinary N losses, which were, overall, increased by supplementation. The highest urinary N losses (P < 0·10) were observed when urea was either totally or partially supplied as a ruminal pulse dose. The rumen N balance was negative for the control and when urea was totally supplied in the abomasum. The greatest microbial N production (P < 0·10) was obtained when urea was partially or totally supplied in the abomasum. Urea supplementation increased (P < 0·10) the amount of urea recycled to the gastrointestinal tract and the amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle. The greatest (P < 0·10) amounts of urea-N used for anabolism were observed when urea was totally and continuously infused in the abomasum. The continuous abomasal infusion also resulted in the highest (P < 0·10) assimilation of microbial N from recycling. The continuous releasing of urea throughout day either in the rumen or abomasum is able to improve N accretion in the animal body, despite mechanism responsible for that being different.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.
Wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) is a troublesome broadleaf weed in grain production areas in South America. Herbicide resistance to multiple sites of action has been documented in this species, including protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors. We investigated the physiological and molecular bases for PPO-inhibitor resistance in a E. heterophylla population (RPPO) from Southern Brazil. Whole-plant dose–response experiments revealed a cross-resistance profile to three different chemical groups of PPO inhibitors. Based on dose–response parameters, RPPO was resistant to lactofen (47.7-fold), saflufenacil (8.6-fold), and pyraflufen-ethyl (3.5-fold). Twenty-four hours after lactofen treatment (120 g ha−1) POST, RPPO accumulated 27 times less protoporphyrin than the susceptible population (SPPO). In addition, RPPO generated 5 and 4.5 times less hydrogen peroxide and superoxide than SPPO, respectively. The chloroplast PPO (PPO1) sequences were identical between the two populations, whereas 35 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found for the mitochondrial PPO (PPO2). Based on protein homology modeling, the Arg-128-Leu (homologous to Arg-98-Leu in common ragweed [Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.] was the only one located near the catalytic site, also in a conserved region of PPO2. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitor malathion did not reverse resistance to lactofen in RPPO, and both populations showed similar levels of PPO1 and PPO2 expression, suggesting that metabolic resistance and PPO overexpression are unlikely. This is the first report of an Arg-128-Leu mutation in PPO2 conferring cross-resistance to PPO inhibitors in E. heterophylla.
The use of antibiotics as performance enhancers in animal feeding is declining, so Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil (LGSEO) could be used as a potential substitute for the conventionally used growth promoters. The LGSEO contains components such as carvacrol and thymol, which kill and/or control pathogenic bacteria, increase population of beneficial organisms, act against oxidative processes and onto nutrient digestibility and absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and the effects of LGSEO as a growth promoter in the diet of Japanese quail by examining their productive performance, intestinal microbiology, blood biochemical parameters, hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and intestinal gene expression. A total of 252 two-day-old quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were assigned to 3 treatments in 7 replicates, using 12 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal diet, basal diet + LGSEO at 400 mg/kg of diet and basal diet + chemical antimicrobial (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) at 500 mg/kg of diet. The experimental period was 34 days. The highest feed intake (P < 0.01) was found in the group receiving the conventional antimicrobial, whereas the best feed conversion (P < 0.01) was shown by the animals receiving LGSEO. Escherichia coli growth was restricted in the quail receiving the growth promoters. Salmonella spp. growth was controlled by the treatment containing the conventional antimicrobial. There was no difference between the treatments (P > 0.05) for the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzymes in the blood or hepatic TBARS content. Birds receiving negative-control treatment exhibited a higher expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), while those receiving the treatment with essential oil showed lower catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX7) expressions compared to the conventional antimicrobial and control groups, respectively. Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil is a powerful performance enhancer for Japanese quail by virtue of its abilities to improve their intestinal environment, balance the microbial population and reduce energy expenditure for oxidative processes.
The main purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence of cognitive impairments among hypertensive outpatients in the Hypertension Department of Cardiology National Institute.
A sample of 90 consecutive hypertensive outpatients was evaluated from the cohort of 217 hypertensive patients population in treatment. They were assessed by the same PhD psychiatrist using the Mini Mental State Examination.
Prospective study of a sample of 90 consecutive hypertensive outpatients was evaluated from the cohort of 217 hypertensive patients population in treatment. They were assessed by the same psychiatrist, using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE).
The main question, proposed by this study, if arterial hypertension causes cognitive impairment, has a negative answer, for it was observed that for each mercury millimeter increased in the Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), occurs a downfall of only 0.02 in the MMSE, but when adjusted according to the age of subjects, the association among DBP and the MMSE score disappears. Statistical analysis included the t test of Student or Mann-Whitney, qui-square test or Fisher's exact test and linear regression.
This study did not show any causal correlation between hypertension and cognitive impairment. According to numberless articles, the MMEE instrument demonstrated in this study, great bias associated with illiteracy and formal education.