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Family carers supporting an individual with psychosis often experience poorer mental health, however, little is known about specific risk factors among these carers. We investigated the associations between demographic, caregiving characteristics and mental health outcomes in family carers supporting an individual with psychosis and compared carers' outcomes with general population norms.
We analysed baseline data from the COPe-support randomised controlled trial of online psychoeducation and peer support for adult carers supporting an individual with psychosis between 2018 and 2020. We collected carers' demographic and health outcome data, including wellbeing using Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS as primary outcome), quality of life using EQ-5D-5L and caregiving experience assessed with Experience of Caregiving Inventory. We tested associations between carers' demographic and caregiving characteristics for each outcome in turn and meta-analysed carers' WEMWBS and EQ-5D-5L with Health Survey England (HSE) general population data from 2016 and 2017, respectively.
The 407 carers of people with psychosis had a mean WEMWBS score of 42.2 (s.d. 9.21) and their overall weighted pooled WEMWBS score was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) −8.6 to −6.0, p < 0.01) lower than the HSE general population sample, indicating carers have poorer mental wellbeing by more than double the minimum clinically important difference of 3 points on WEMWBS. Among all caring relationships, partners had poorer wellbeing compared to parents with lower WEMWBS score (−6.8, −16.9 to 3.3, p = 0.03). Single carers had significantly poorer wellbeing (−3.6, −5.6 to −1.5, p < 0.01) and a more negative caregiving experience than those who were cohabiting. Spending more than 35 h per week caregiving increased carers' negative experience significantly (p = 0.01).
Carers of people with psychosis have poorer mental health than non-carers. Partners, lone carers and those spending more than 35 h per week on caring were found to be most at risk of poor mental health. Based on the results, we advocate that the details of carers for individuals with psychosis should be added to the existing carers or severe mental illness registers at all general practitioner surgeries and for their wellbeing screened routinely. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to develop a predictive model to determine risk factors, hence to aid early identification of carers' support needs. Such understandings are also useful to inform tailored intervention development.
Observations of CO emission (Kutner et al. 1977) have delineated a molecular cloud extending over several square degrees in the Orion region, and extensive surveys have been made of several other molecules (e.g. CN, CS, HCN, H2CO, H2H+) in the densest regions of this cloud.
At the centre of the Parkes 64—m radio telescope a region of diameter 17 m has recently been resurfaced to improve its efficiency at high frequencies. The first measurements using this section have been made at 22 GHz, in observations of both continuum sources and water tfapour masers. For these observations the receiver front-end used a mixer cooled in liquid nitrogen, followed by a 5 GHz cryogenic parametric amplifier as a second stage. The option of switching against an offset horn was available and the total system
noise temperature was ∽ 750 K.
In this paper we present maps showing the distribution of HCO+ (J= 1→0 transition at 89.18855 GHz) in the direction of NGC 6334 as a function of radial velocity, lhe observations were carried out in May-June 1979 as part of a larger program of HCO+ observations (Batchelor et al. 1980, 1981) using the Epping 4-m millimetre-wave radio telescope.
Ammonia was the first interstellar molecule with more than two atoms to be discovered (Cheung et al. 1968). Since that time it has been observed in many HII regions and dark clouds (Mayer et al. 1973; Morris et al. 1973; Cheung et al. 1973; Kaifu et al. 1975). The molecule has a rich rotation-inversion spectrum with about 10 transitions in the range 23-25 GHz. Each line has hyperfine structure which permits, in principle, the determination of optical depths, filling factors and excitation. Unfortunately line brightness temperatures are low (<1 K) so that a low-noise receiving system and long integration times are required to exploit these possibilities.
A new maser receiver, operating between 20 and 24 GHz and constructed by the radiometer group at the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics, was first scheduled for astronomical observations in December 1981. In good observing conditions the system temperature was as low as 60 K. In conjunction with the versatility of the 1024-channel correlator and the large collecting area of the Parkes telescope (the central 37 m illuminated at 22 GHz yields a ratio of flux density to antenna temperature of 9∼ Jy K-1) the total system is a very powerful new tool. Here we report some observations of naturally occuring celestial H2O masers which we have studied with this system.
A 4-m telescope for mm-wave observations, particularly of spectral lines, was erected in mid-1976 at Epping by Krupp Ltd., Rheinhausen. A cooled mixer receiver was installed on the telescope in April 1977 and a series of test observations made during the remainder of the year, subject to the availability of the receiver and the multi-channel filter bank which were shared with the Parkes 64-m telescope.
The following passage evokes the traumas suffered by the Cambodian people at the hands of the notoriously brutal Khmer Rouge regime. The torments undergone by the Cambodians find their expression in an exhibition in Grenoble. Given the colonial heritage that links Cambodia to France, it was logical that an exhibition of this kind should take place in France and especially in Grenoble, whose inhabitants welcomed a persecuted people. The passage makes considerable use of the varied forms of possessive adjectives and pronouns which are highlighted in bold. Note particularly that the possessive adjective differs from the possessive pronoun in that the latter is preceded by the definite article: notre/les nôtres, leur/le leur. Some translations are given.
Une exposition temporaire marquante
Notre Musée de la Résistance et de la Déportation à Grenoble organise des expositions temporaires sur des thématiques [groups of subjects] qui nous touchent tous. La ville de Grenoble se vide pendant l’été. Les Grenoblois regagnent leur ville à la fin du mois d'août. Certains profitent de l'ouverture de leurs musées pour s'informer, s'enrichir et se cultiver. Une exposition temporaire marquante et très émouvante concerne le génocide des Cambodgiens. Celle-ci brosse un tableau sinistre des crimes perpétrés par les Khmers rouges au milieu des années soixante-dix. Tout au long de cette exposition, on découvre les atrocités de ce génocide, la chute des Khmers rouges et la fin de leur dictature en 1979. Le Cambodge livré à lui-même en plein désastre doit se reconstruire. L'ampleur des dégâts [devastation] dépasse notre entendement, et certainement le mien.[…]
The following passage evokes the memory of Albert Camus who, in all his works, denounces the scandal of the injustice inherent in our human condition. The fiftieth anniversary of his sudden death in a road accident provides the occasion for a national homage paid to an author of colossal moral status. The passage has recourse to a number of adverbs and adverbial phrases, all of which are highlighted in bold. Only one translation is provided.
Reference is made to the Panthéon where France honors her eminent children by receiving their mortal remains in the form of ashes. Exceptionally, a quotation taken from Camus’s La chute forms the middle paragraph. It expresses the irony of the vilifying of a person in life being transformed into the unrestrained eulogizing of that same person in death.
A Reference Grammar of French is a lively, wide-ranging and original handbook on the structure of the French language. It includes new information on register, pronunciation, gender, number, foreign words (Latin, Arabic, English, Spanish, Italian), adjectives and past participles used as nouns, texting, word order, frequency of occurrence of words, and usage with all geographical names. Examples come not only from France, but also from Quebec, Belgium and Switzerland. Readers will appreciate the initial passages illustrating the grammatical features of a given chapter. Also included is a user-friendly introduction to the French language, from its Latin origins to modern times. A full glossary explains any terms that might confuse the less experienced reader, and the index leads the student through the detailed labyrinth of grammatical features. This handbook will be an invaluable resource for students and teachers who want to perfect their knowledge of all aspects of French grammar.
The study of French grammar offers us a striking penetration into the national mind of France and into the French speaker's sense of cultural identity and civilization. The year 2009 witnessed a passionate, national debate, launched by President Sarkozy, on the significance of being French. An integral contribution to this debate was made by a French economist who distinguishes below one feature above all others in the pursuit of national identity and consciousness: the French language with all its anomalies of pronunciation, spelling and grammatical inconsistencies. We make no apologies for quoting in full his most lucid article on what it means to be French. The emphasis in three sentences has been added by the authors.