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National Healthcare Safety Network data were analyzed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the incidence of healthcare-associated infections during 2021. Standardized infection ratios were significantly higher than those during the pre-pandemic period, particularly during 2021-Q1 and 2021-Q3. HAI incidence was elevated during periods of high COVID-19 hospitalizations.
Clomazone is a widely used herbicide in California water-seeded rice for control of bearded sprangletop and watergrass. Generally, clomazone is applied to a flooded rice field at day of rice seeding. However, interest exist among growers to delay the clomazone application. Weather variability may encourage growers to practice Leathers method. Leathers method is the practice of draining the field 1 to 2 days after air seeding to encourage better and more uniform seedling establishment, then reflooding back to a 10- to 15-cm flood 4 to 7 days later. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate grass weed control and rice response at four rates of clomazone, applied at two timings: at day of seeding (DOS) in a continuous 10-cm flood, and after Leathers method. This study was conducted in 2019 and 2020 at the Rice Experiment Station in Biggs, California. In 2019, there were no difference across clomazone rate on control of bearded sprangletop independently of application timing used; however, in 2020 bearded sprangletop control with clomazone applied after Leathers method was 70 to 71% across clomazone rate by 60 days after treatment (DAT), compared to 92 to 97% in the DOS applications. Watergrass control was 100% in 2019 across clomazone rate and application timing. However, in 2020 watergrass control was greater at the DOS application with 54 to 71%. Clomazone applied at the 0.7 kg ha−1 Leathers method resulted in 84% bleaching by 14 DAT and was similar across all Leathers method clomazone applications and the 0.7 kg ha−1 DOS application. There was no rice grain yield difference among all clomazone treated plots with the exception of the 0.7 kg ha−1 Leathers method interaction with the DOS applications.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Title V Coop developed CRESCO, a physical and virtual space in the libraries of the two cooperating institutions. Adopting a flexible and transformational approach, it offers services to support the development of research and information skills of undergraduate students and faculty who receive clinical-translational research (CTR) training. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Since 2016, CRESCO has been staffed by a multidisciplinary team composed of three librarians, a statistician, an instructional designer, and an IT specialist. The physical facilities of the two libraries were remodeled and equipped, and a central portal was created to provide services and access to resources on a 7/24 basis. Online tutorials, workshops, and mentoring services have been offered that address topics in statistics, literature search, plagiarism, and the use of several research software. Services statistics are collected, and a questionnaire is administered to evaluate the workshops. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The main results include 12 online tutorials created in CTR areas and available in the CRESCO hub portal; 14,660 mentoring/consultations offered in statistics, the use of research-related software, and the search for scientific literature search; and 6 online workshops created in CTR areas, with 463 attendees. When evaluating online workshops, participants considered that their acquired learning was high or extremely high on the following topics: use of Intellectus Statistics (88%, n = 96); selection of statistical tests (81%, n = 92); use of Turnitin (85%, n = 76); literature search (91%, n = 58); and citations and references in Mendeley (90%, n = 67). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the flexible, multidisciplinary, and transformational approach of CRESCO has been successful in helping undergraduate students and faculty develop the skills necessary to conduct CTR projects.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO) Mentoring Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR) 1 – 2 and the elective courses (INTD 5998/ MDCL 101) in CTR of Title V Coop were designed to provide the participants from higher education institution (HEI) in Puerto Rico (PR), interdisciplinary – interprofesional knowledge in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Since April 2017, Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO) and Mentoring Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR) 1 - 2 trainings were offered as part of the Title V Coop. In addition, since January 2020, as part of the institutionalization of the trainings in CTR, two elective courses (INTD 5998 and MDCL 101) were created-offered. The trainings/courses present the main concepts underlying CTR performance through lectures, workshops and presentations, in hybrid modalities, as well as the services-resources of the Center Research Education and Science Commnunication Opportunities (CRESCO). These programs have given students (undergraduate and graduate) and faculty the opportunity to get started in CTR and to integrate in Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Eight (8) cycles of RETO-MOTOR 1 and seven (7) cycles of RETO-MOTOR 2; two sessions of INTD 5998 and one session of MDCL 101 were offered. The RETO-MOTOR 1 training was completed by 219 participants and RETO-MOTOR 2 by 130 participants. The INTD 5998 course was completed by 22 students and the MDCL 101 course by 18 students. A total of 389 participants have been initiated in the CTR. Of the trainings, 90% indicated that the knowledge acquired in CTR was invaluable, 85% understand that the most significant achievement, as students, was present at a scientific conference, and 100% indicated interest in continuing to do CTR. Of the courses, 100% indicated that they were a good learning experience, helped them increase their knowledge in CTR, met their expectations and would recommend other students to take the course. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The RETO-MOTOR 1, RETO-MOTOR 2 trainings and CTR courses provide a based of research knowledge and valuable interprofessional experience for those who whish to start in the clinical and translational research. The Title V Cooperative Project provides this opportunity to undergraduate and graduate students such as faculty of HEI in PR.
Discusses the development, application and limitations of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) methods, including the deriation of kinematic measures of human sperm motility. Explains the technical and biological factors that limit CASA's functionality for human semen analysis and summarizes expert recommendations on the use of CASA for human semen analysis and sperm kinematics analysis (including sperm-mucus penetration and sperm hyperactivation). Issues related to the non-comparability of different CASA systems are considered, along with quality control for CASA. A strategy for validating a CASA system for human semen analysis, based on expectations of accuracy and precision, is also provided. Finally the use of CASA for analyzing sperm function tests, and new and future CASA technology (including the application of artificial intelligence technqiues) are surveyed.
The physiology and basic principles of sperm washing and other preparative techniques are described, including the limitations and even dangers posed by some methods. Optimized methods for sperm preparation using direct swim-up from semen and density gradient centrifugation are provided as standard operating procedures (SOPs) for easy use at the bench. Methods are focussed on standardization and robustness, and minimizing the risk iatrogenic damage to the spermatozoa and avoiding errors. There are sections on selecting which method to use, dealing with atypical semen specimens, processing multiple specimens, and potential new technology for preparing human spermatozoa for use in assisted conception treatment.
Provides methods for a range of common sperm function tests that are structured as standard operating procedures (SOPs) for easy use at the bench. Methods are focussed on objectivity, robustness, standardized reporting, controlling the risk of errors, and minimizing measurement uncertainty. Includes sperm hyperactivation, acrosome reaction testing, and sperm-zone pellucida binding tests (hemi-zona and competititve binding formats). A protocol for using the sperm survival test in also provided. Limitations of the hyaluronan bibding assay, and of sperm fertilizing ability testing using zona pellucida-free hanster oocytes, are summarized.
Discusses the origins and detection of sperm DNA fragmentation, including cliniCal indications for such testing. Provides methods for a range of common techniques for assessimg sperm DNA fragmentation that are structured as standard operating procedures (SOPs) for easy use at the bench, inclding the TUNEL assay, Comet assay, and the sperm chromatin dispersion test (Halosperm test).
Sampling of cervical mucus, its assessment, and the investigation of sperm-mucus interaction are described in detail. Methods are provided for a range of common tests that are structured as standard operating procedures (SOPs) for easy use at the bench. Methods are focussed on objectivity, robustness, standardized reporting, controlling the risk of errors, and minimizing measurement uncertainty. Includes the post-coital test, Kurzrok-Miller slide test, the Kremer capillary tube sperm penetration test, and the sperm-cervical mucus contact sldie test. An explanation of crosed hostility testing is also included, along with a discussion of complementary tests and the use of cervical mucus surrogates.
This chapter provides an overview of 20 primary recommendations for safe working in the andrology laboratory, along with sections on accident prevention, appropriate clothing and the proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), fire safety, dealing with spills, use and disposal of biological materials, chemical hazards, compressed gases, and cryogenics.
The basic princples of cryobiology are described for both slow freezing and vitrification of spermatozoa. Specific aspects of cryopreserving human spermatozoa are discussed in detail, incluidng the formulation of cryopreservation media and their proper use. Alternative packaging devices are discussed in relation to the achievement of correct cooling and warming curves as well as effective biocontainment. High security straws are recommended as the best method to use from both perspectives, and a standard operating procedure (SOP) for easy use at the bench is provided. SOPs for human sperm vitrification techniques are also gven. Quality control and risk management aspects of sperm freezing and for cryobank organzation are described. Finally, there is a section on sperm donation.