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Gowan Company recently registered benzobicyclon, a WSSA Group 27 herbicide, as a postflood option in rice. It is the first 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide commercially available in mid-southern U.S. rice production. In 2018 and 2019, field experiments were conducted across multiple sites in Arkansas to determine if the addition of benzobicyclon to quizalofop- or imidazolinone-resistant rice herbicide programs would improve weedy rice control. Across site years, one application of quizalofop, either at the 1- or 3-leaf rice stage, followed by benzobicyclon applied postflood, provided comparable weedy rice control to two sequential applications of quizalofop, which is a standard herbicide program in quizalofop-resistant rice. Additionally, treatments containing quizalofop or quizalofop followed by benzobicyclon injured rice ≤5% at 28 d after the postflood application. Across site years, at 28 d after the postflood application of benzobicyclon, all treatments containing a full-season herbicide program followed by benzobicyclon postflood provided comparable or improved weedy rice control when compared to two sequential early postemergence applications of imazethapyr. In both experiments, rice treated with benzobicyclon yielded comparably or better than treatments containing the standard herbicide program for each system. Findings from this research suggest that the use of benzobicyclon in quizalofop- and imidazolinone-resistant rice systems could be an additional and viable weedy rice control option for rice producers.
Drag has long been part of the LGBTQ rights movement. Drag performers play an important role as community leaders and political activists. Today, drag performers are also popular celebrities in the rest of society. This article explores the role of drag performers as community leaders and celebrities in the context of the 2020 presidential election. To understand this, we interviewed drag performers about their experiences using drag to mobilize voters. Research shows that Get Out The Vote (GOTV) efforts are more successful if they are led by volunteers and include trusted messengers while still being unexpected in some way. Drag performers are community leaders and volunteers and, when speaking about politics, deliver unexpected—and thus memorable—messages. The drag performers that we interviewed demonstrate the potential for drag artists to be effective GOTV messengers, in both the LGBTQ community and society more broadly.
Background: Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a disorder of the elderly with progressive worsening of gait and balance, cognition, and urinary control which requires assessment using criteria recommended by International iNPH guidelines. Methods: Adult Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (AHCRN) prospective registry data from 5-centers over a 50-month interval included entry criteria; demographics; comorbidities; examination findings using standard AHCRN gait and neuropsychology assessments; shunt procedures, complications of CSF drainage, complications within 30 days of surgery, and 1-year postoperative follow-up. Results: 547 patients were referred for assessment of suspected-iNPH. 123 patients(21.6%) did not meet clinical criteria to proceed with further testing. 424 patients(74.4%;mean age 76.7 ± 6.0 years;males=269) underwent an LP or lumbar drain, and 193(45.6%) underwent insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. By 8-12 months after shunt surgery, gait velocity was 0.96±0.35m/s (54% faster than pre-CSF-drainage). Mean MoCA scores increased from 21.0 ± 5.0(median=22.0) at baseline to 22.6±5.5(median=24) 12-months post-surgery. Gait and cognitive improvements were clinically significant. No deaths occurred. 8% of shunt-surgery patients experienced minor complications. The 30-day reoperation rate was 4.1%. Conclusions: This AHCRN study demonstrated that CSF-drainage testing of patients with suspected-iNPH successfully identified those who could undergo CSF-shunt surgery with a high rate of improvement and a low rate of complications.
The alpine–subalpine Loch Vale watershed (LVW) of Colorado, USA, has relatively high natural lithogenic P5+ fluxes to surface waters. For 1992–2018, the largest number of stream samples with P5+ concentrations ([P5+]) above detection limits occurred in 2008, corresponding with the highest frost-cracking intensity (FCI). Therefore, relatively cold winters and warm summers with a comparatively low mean annual temperature partly influence stream [P5+]. Sediment cores were collected from The Loch, an outlet lake of the LVW. Iron-, Al-, and Mn-oxide-bound phosphorus (adsorbed and authigenic phosphates; NP) serves as a proxy measurement for paleolake [P5+]. The highest NP in the core occurred during the cold and dry Allerød interstade. The lowest NP concentrations in the core occurred during climatically very wet periods in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Therefore, [P5+] are highest with relatively cold winters followed by relatively warm summers, relatively low mean annual temperatures, and relatively little rainfall and/or cryospheric melting. Currently the LVW is experiencing warming and melting of the permanent cryosphere with a rapidly declining FCI since 2008. This has the potential to dramatically decrease [P5+] in surface water ecosystems of the LVW, reducing biological productivity, enhancing P-limitation, and increasing ecosystem reliance on aeolian P5+.
The impact of secondary fluorescence on the material compositions measured by X-ray analysis for layered semiconductor thin films is assessed using simulations performed by the DTSA-II and CalcZAF software tools. Three technologically important examples are investigated: AlxGa1−xN layers on either GaN or AlN substrates, InxAl1−xN on GaN, and Si-doped (SnxGa1−x)2O3 on Si. Trends in the differences caused by secondary fluorescence are explained in terms of the propensity of different elements to reabsorb either characteristic or bremsstrahlung X-rays and then to re-emit the characteristic X-rays used to determine composition of the layer under investigation. Under typical beam conditions (7–12 keV), the quantification of dopants/trace elements is found to be susceptible to secondary fluorescence and care must be taken to prevent erroneous results. The overall impact on major constituents is shown to be very small with a change of approximately 0.07 molar cation percent for Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN layers and a maximum change of 0.08 at% in the Si content of (SnxGa1−x)2O3/Si layers. This provides confidence that previously reported wavelength-dispersive X-ray compositions are not compromised by secondary fluorescence.
The 4.2 ka event is widely presumed to be a globally widespread aridity event and has been linked to several episodes of societal changes across the globe. Whether this climate event impacted the cultural development in south-central China remains uncertain due to a lack of regional paleorainfall records. We present here stalagmite stable carbon isotope and trace element–based reconstruction of hydroclimatic conditions from south-central China. Our data reveal a sub–millennial scale (~5.6 to 4.3 ka) drying trend in the region followed by a gradual transition to wetter conditions during the 4.2 ka event (4.3–3.9 ka). Together with the existing archaeological evidence, our data suggest that the drier climate before 4.3 ka may have promoted the Shijiahe culture, while the pluvial conditions during the 4.2 ka event may have adversely affected its settlements in low-lying areas. While military conflicts with the Wangwan III culture may have accelerated the collapse of Shijiahe culture, we suggest that the joint effects of climate and the region's topography also played important causal roles in its demise.
Gastropods are an important component of subtidal Antarctic communities including in common association with macroalgae. Nonetheless, limited data exist detailing their abundance and distribution on macroalgal species. This study documents the abundance and species composition of gastropod assemblages on the two largest, blade-forming Antarctic macroalgae, Himantothallus grandifolius and Sarcopeltis antarctica, sampled across two depths (9 and 18 m) at four sites for each species off Anvers Island, Antarctica. Gastropods were also enumerated on Desmarestia anceps, Desmarestia antarctica and Plocamium sp. but were not included in the main analyses because of small sample sizes. There were major differences between the gastropod assemblages on deep vs shallow H. grandifolius and S. antarctica with much higher numbers of individuals and also greater numbers of gastropod species at the greater depth. Differences between the gastropod assemblages on H. grandifolius and S. antarctica across sampling sites were apparent in non-parametric, multivariate analyses, although depth contributed more than site to these differences. Within common sites, assemblages on H. grandifolius were significantly different from those on S. antarctica at 18 m depth but not at 9 m depth, indicating that the host species can be but is not always more important than site in influencing the gastropod assemblages.
Archaeological studies of Early Islamic communities in Central Asia have focused on lowland urban communities. Here, the authors report on recent geophysical survey and excavation of an Early Islamic cemetery at Tashbulak in south-eastern Uzbekistan. AMS dating places the establishment of the cemetery in the mid-eighth century AD, making it one of the earliest Islamic burial grounds documented in Central Asia. Burials at Tashbulak conform to Islamic prescriptions for grave form and body deposition. The consistency in ritual suggests the existence of a funerary community of practice, challenging narratives of Islamic conversion in peripheral areas as a process of slow diffusion and emphasising the importance of archaeological approaches for documenting the diversity of Early Islamic communities.
This paper introduces a formal definition of a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) in the spirit of the CPS Framework proposed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It shows that using this definition, various problems related to concerns in a CPS can be precisely formalized and implemented using Answer Set Programming (ASP). These include problems related to the dependency or conflicts between concerns, how to mitigate an issue, and what the most suitable mitigation strategy for a given issue would be. It then shows how ASP can be used to develop an implementation that addresses the aforementioned problems. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potentials of the proposed methodologies.
Fewer than half of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond to psychotherapy. Pre-emptively informing patients of their likelihood of responding could be useful as part of a patient-centered treatment decision-support plan.
This prospective observational study examined a national sample of 807 patients beginning psychotherapy for MDD at the Veterans Health Administration. Patients completed a self-report survey at baseline and 3-months follow-up (data collected 2018–2020). We developed a machine learning (ML) model to predict psychotherapy response at 3 months using baseline survey, administrative, and geospatial variables in a 70% training sample. Model performance was then evaluated in the 30% test sample.
32.0% of patients responded to treatment after 3 months. The best ML model had an AUC (SE) of 0.652 (0.038) in the test sample. Among the one-third of patients ranked by the model as most likely to respond, 50.0% in the test sample responded to psychotherapy. In comparison, among the remaining two-thirds of patients, <25% responded to psychotherapy. The model selected 43 predictors, of which nearly all were self-report variables.
Patients with MDD could pre-emptively be informed of their likelihood of responding to psychotherapy using a prediction tool based on self-report data. This tool could meaningfully help patients and providers in shared decision-making, although parallel information about the likelihood of responding to alternative treatments would be needed to inform decision-making across multiple treatments.
Gatherings where people are eating and drinking can increase the risk of getting and spreading SARS-CoV-2 among people who are not fully vaccinated; prevention strategies like wearing masks and physical distancing continue to be important for some groups. We conducted an online survey to characterise fall/winter 2020–2021 holiday gatherings, decisions to attend and prevention strategies employed during and before gatherings. We determined associations between practicing prevention strategies, demographics and COVID-19 experience. Among 502 respondents, one-third attended in person holiday gatherings; 73% wore masks and 84% practiced physical distancing, but less did so always (29% and 23%, respectively). Younger adults were 44% more likely to attend gatherings than adults ≥35 years. Younger adults (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.53, 95% CI 1.19–1.97), persons who did not experience COVID-19 themselves or have relatives/close friends experience severe COVID-19 (aPR 1.56, 95% CI 1.18–2.07), and non-Hispanic White persons (aPR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13–2.18) were more likely to not always wear masks in public during the 2 weeks before gatherings. Public health messaging emphasizing consistent application of COVID-19 prevention strategies is important to slow the spread of COVID-19.
Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in Ethiopia. However, the distribution of Se and Zn deficiency risks has previously shown evidence of spatially dependent variability, warranting the need to explore this aspect for wider micronutrients. Here, blood serum concentrations for Ca, Mg, Co, Cu and Mo were measured (n 3102) on samples from the Ethiopian National Micronutrient Survey. Geostatistical modelling was used to test spatial variation of these micronutrients for women of reproductive age, who represent the largest demographic group surveyed (n 1290). Median serum concentrations were 8·6 mg dl−1 for Ca, 1·9 mg dl−1 for Mg, 0·4 µg l−1 for Co, 98·8 µg dl−1 for Cu and 0·2 µg dl−1 for Mo. The prevalence of Ca, Mg and Co deficiency was 41·6 %, 29·2 % and 15·9 %, respectively; Cu and Mo deficiency prevalence was 7·6 % and 0·3 %, respectively. A higher prevalence of Ca, Cu and Mo deficiency was observed in north western, Co deficiency in central and Mg deficiency in north eastern parts of Ethiopia. Serum Ca, Mg and Mo concentrations show spatial dependencies up to 140–500 km; however, there was no evidence of spatial correlations for serum Co and Cu concentrations. These new data indicate the scale of multiple mineral micronutrient deficiency in Ethiopia and the geographical differences in the prevalence of deficiencies suggesting the need to consider targeted responses during the planning of nutrition intervention programmes.
Field bindweed is a perennial vining weed with vigorous growth, and is commonly found in highbush blueberry fields of Oregon. It requires and integrated strategy using multiple applications of postemergence herbicides and hand weeding for adequate control. Quinclorac is a herbicide that has been shown to control field bindweed, but no information is available indicating the tolerance of blueberry to quinclorac. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of blueberry to quinclorac and to evaluate field bindweed control with quinclorac in different mixtures. Three groups of field studies were designed to assess 1) single application control of field bindweed, 2) use of sequential treatments to control field bindweed, and 3) long-term impact of quinclorac on field bindweed. In the single application control studies, a single application of quinclorac at 210 or 420 g ai ha−1 alone or in a mixture with rimsulfuron (35 g ai ha−1) or carfentrazone (35 g ai ha−1), controlled field bindweed by 69% to 76% while reducing its biomass between 22% and 44% compared to the nontreated control (61 g m−2). In a sequential treatment study, a single application of quinclorac (420 g ai ha−1) provided 83% to 100% control of field bindweed, outperforming three sequential applications of carfentrazone. In the long-term study, a single application of quinclorac reduced field bindweed biomass by 50% to 82% in 2019 and 62% to 87% in 2020. These results indicate that quinclorac can be safely applied to highbush blueberry plants. Early spring applications of quinclorac to field bindweed will reduce or eliminate the need for subsequent applications later in the season.
To evaluate hospital-level variation in using first-line antibiotics for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) based on the burden of laboratory-identified (LabID) CDI.
Using data on hospital-level LabID CDI events and antimicrobial use (AU) for CDI (oral/rectal vancomycin or fidaxomicin) submitted to the National Healthcare Safety Network in 2019, we assessed the association between hospital-level CDI prevalence (per 100 patient admissions) and rate of CDI AU (days of therapy per 1,000 days present) to generate a predicted value of AU based on CDI prevalence and CDI test type using negative binomial regression. The ratio of the observed to predicted AU was then used to identify hospitals with extreme discordance between CDI prevalence and CDI AU, defined as hospitals with a ratio outside of the intervigintile range.
Among 963 acute-care hospitals, rate of CDI prevalence demonstrated a positive dose–response relationship with rate of CDI AU. Compared with hospitals without extreme discordance (n = 902), hospitals with lower-than-expected CDI AU (n = 31) had, on average, fewer beds (median, 106 vs 208), shorter length of stay (median, 3.8 vs 4.2 days), and higher proportion of undergraduate or nonteaching medical school affiliation (48% vs 39%). Hospitals with higher-than-expected CDI AU (n = 30) were similar overall to hospitals without extreme discordance.
The prevalence rate of LabID CDI had a significant dose–response association with first-line antibiotics for treating CDI. We identified hospitals with extreme discordance between CDI prevalence and CDI AU, highlighting potential opportunities for data validation and improvements in diagnostic and treatment practices for CDI.
Rumination and worry are characteristic mental processes within depression and anxiety that have been found to contribute to the onset and maintenance of multiple disorders and to interfere with effective recovery. As such, they are important targets for treatment and prevention. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been adapted to specifically target rumination and worry, building on experimental research. This rumination-focused CBT has been proven to be efficacious in clinical trials. Rumination-focused CBT is based on the ideas that (1) rumination is a learnt habit and that effective treatment requires recognition of the triggers for the habit and either their removal/interruption or the learning of new adaptive responses to the triggers, based on repeated practice and if-then plans, and that (2) thinking over difficult situations is a normal response that can be helpful or unhelpful, and the therapy works with clients to shift them into a more helpful, concrete (How?) way of thinking rather than an unhelpful, abstract (Why?) way of thinking. The current chapter outlines the key principles, structure, and techniques within rumination-focused CBT including functional analysis, formulation, shifting thinking style, absorption, compassion, how to conduct assessments, how to select treatment components, and how to handle problems.
To review existing publications using Household Consumption and Expenditure Survey (HCES) data to estimate household dietary nutrient supply to (1) describe scope of available literature, (2) identify the metrics reported and parameters used to construct these metrics, (3) summarise comparisons between estimates derived from HCES and individual dietary assessment data and (4) explore the demographic and socio-economic sub-groups used to characterise risks of nutrient inadequacy.
This study is a systematic review of publications identified from online databases published between 2000 to 2019 that used HCES food consumption data to estimate household dietary nutrient supply. Further publications were identified by ‘snowballing’ the references of included database-identified publications.
Publications using data from low- and lower-middle income countries.
In total, fifty-eight publications were included. Three metrics were reported that characterised household dietary nutrient supply: apparent nutrient intake per adult-male equivalent per day (n 35), apparent nutrient intake per capita per day (n 24) and nutrient density (n 5). Nutrient intakes were generally overestimated using HCES food consumption data, with several studies finding sizeable discrepancies compared with intake estimates based on individual dietary assessment methods. Sub-group analyses predominantly focused on measuring variation in household dietary nutrient supply according to socio-economic position and geography.
HCES data are increasingly being used to assess diets across populations. More research is needed to inform the development of a framework to guide the use of and qualified interpretation of dietary assessments based on these data.
For decades, the research community called for streamlined Institutional Review Board (IRB) review processes for multisite studies. Department of Health and Human Services and National Institutes of Health (NIH) recognized this need and implemented single IRB (sIRB) of record mandates. However, announcing mandates without sufficient operational guidance and tools is insufficient to foster the desired change. Nearly 4 years into implementation of the NIH’s sIRB mandate, operational challenges remain. Fortunately, NIH supports a web-based sIRB platform, the IRB Reliance Exchange (IREx), to facilitate sIRB communication and documentation. IREx has received continuous NIH funding supporting its evolution since 2011 and is now used by over 5,000 Human Research Protection Program and research personnel, 35 sIRBs, and 415 participating sites to operationalize sIRB review and approval on over 400 studies. IREx supports over 2300 reliance relationships with an average of 7 sites per study. The platform is continually used by sIRBs and relying sites, providing a valuable centralized portal for promoting a harmonized sIRB review process. IREx can promote transparency, standardize practice, minimize workflow variation, and mitigate the need for sIRBs to implement significant technical changes to their local electronic systems. IREx has proven to be nimble and adaptable with practice and policy changes over the past decade, as evidenced by continually increasing platform utilization.