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The objective of this study was to derive a factor structure of the measures of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) that is representative of cognitive abilities in a large ethnically diverse cohort of 8-year-old children in Aotearoa New Zealand.
Our sample comprised of 4298 8-year-old children from the Growing Up in New Zealand study. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis for the NIH Toolbox CB measures to discover the best-fitting factor structure in our sample. Measurement invariance of the identified model was tested across child’s gender, socio-economic status (SES), and ethnicity.
A three-dimensional factor structure was identified, with one factor of Crystallised Cognition (Reading and Vocabulary), and two distinguished factors of fluid cognition: Fluid Cognition I (Attention/Inhibitory Control, Processing Speed, and Cognitive Flexibility) and Fluid Cognition II (Working Memory, Episodic Memory). The results demonstrate excellent model fit, but reliability of the factors was low. Measurement invariance was confirmed for child’s gender. We found configural, but neither metric nor scalar, invariance across SES and the four major ethnic groups: European, Māori, Pacific Peoples, and Asian.
Our findings show that, at the age of 8 years, fluid abilities are more strongly associated with one another than with crystallised abilities and that fluid abilities need to be further differentiated. This dimensional structure allows for comparisons across child’s gender, but evaluations across SES and ethnicity within the Aotearoa New Zealand context must be conducted with caution. We recommend using raw scores of the individual NIH Toolbox CB measures in future research.
Pre-school nutrition-related behaviours influence diet and development of lifelong eating habits. We examined the prevalence and congruence of recommended nutrition-related behaviours (RNB) in home and early childhood education (ECE) services, exploring differences by child and ECE characteristics.
Telephone interviews with mothers. Online survey of ECE managers/head teachers.
Children (n 1181) aged 45 months in the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study.
A mean 5·3 of 8 RNB were followed at home, with statistical differences by gender and ethnic group, but not socio-economic position. ECE services followed a mean 4·8 of 8 RNB, with differences by type of service and health-promotion programme participation. No congruence between adherence at home and in ECE services was found; half of children with high adherence at home attended a service with low adherence. A greater proportion of children in deprived communities attended a service with high adherence, compared with children living in the least deprived communities (20 and 12 %, respectively).
Children, across all socio-economic positions, may not experience RNB at home. ECE settings provide an opportunity to improve or support behaviours learned at home. Targeting of health-promotion programmes in high-deprivation areas has resulted in higher adherence to RNB at these ECE services. The lack of congruence between home and ECE behaviours suggests health-promotion messages may not be effectively communicated to parents/family. Greater support is required across the ECE sector to adhere to RNB and promote wider change that can reach into homes.
Although quality of life (QoL) is receiving increasing attention in bipolar disorder (BD) research and practice, little is known about its naturalistic trajectory. The dual aims of this study were to prospectively investigate: (a) the trajectory of QoL under guideline-driven treatment and (b) the dynamic relationship between mood symptoms and QoL.
In total, 362 patients with BD receiving guideline-driven treatment were prospectively followed at 3-month intervals for up to 5 years. Mental (Mental Component Score – MCS) and physical (Physical Component Score – PCS) QoL were measured using the self-report SF-36. Clinician-rated symptom data were recorded for mania and depression. Multilevel modelling was used to analyse MCS and PCS over time, QoL trajectories predicted by time-lagged symptoms, and symptom trajectories predicted by time-lagged QoL.
MCS exhibited a positive trajectory, while PCS worsened over time. Investigation of temporal relationships between QoL and symptoms suggested bidirectional effects: earlier depressive symptoms were negatively associated with mental QoL, and earlier manic symptoms were negatively associated with physical QoL. Importantly, earlier MCS and PCS were both negatively associated with downstream symptoms of mania and depression.
The present investigation illustrates real-world outcomes for QoL under guideline-driven BD treatment: improvements in mental QoL and decrements in physical QoL were observed. The data permitted investigation of dynamic interactions between QoL and symptoms, generating novel evidence for bidirectional effects and encouraging further research into this important interplay. Investigation of relevant time-varying covariates (e.g. medications) was beyond scope. Future research should investigate possible determinants of QoL and the interplay between symptoms and wellbeing/satisfaction-centric measures of QoL.
We present preliminary results from a programme designed to produce deep images of radio source fields drawn from the Parkes 2700 MHz and Molongolo 408 MHz catalogues using the charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera system built at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The programme is directed at a search both for faint extensions and nebulosity around radio QSOs and BL Lac objects and for faint objects in otherwise empty radio source fields; a detailed examination of the morphology of selected radio galaxies is also included.
To determine adherence to nutritional guidelines by pregnant women in New Zealand and maternal characteristics associated with adherence.
A cohort of the pregnant women enrolled into New Zealand’s new birth cohort study, Growing Up in New Zealand.
Women residing within a North Island region of New Zealand, where one-third of the national population lives.
Pregnant women (n 5664) were interviewed during 2009–2010. An FFQ was administered during the face-to-face interview.
The recommended daily number of servings of vegetables and fruit (≥6) were met by 25 % of the women; of breads and cereals (≥6) by 26 %; of milk and milk products (≥3) by 58 %; and of lean meat, meat alternatives and eggs (≥2) by 21 %. One in four women did not meet the recommendations for any food group. Only 3 % met all four food group recommendations. Although adherence to recommendation for the vegetables/fruit group did not vary by ethnicity (P=0·38), it did vary for the breads/cereals, milk/milk products and meat/eggs groups (all P<0·001). Adherence to recommendations for the vegetables/fruit group was higher among older women (P=0·001); for the breads/cereals group was higher for women with previous children (P<0·001) and from lower-income households (P<0·001); and for the meat/eggs group was higher for women with previous children (P=0·003) and from lower-income households (P=0·004).
Most pregnant women in New Zealand do not adhere to nutritional guidelines in pregnancy, with only 3 % meeting the recommendations for all four food groups. Adherence varies more so with ethnicity than with other sociodemographic characteristics.
A laboratory experiment was performed to study the dynamically rich interaction of a turbulent open channel flow with a bed-mounted axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine. An acoustic Doppler velocimeter and a torque transducer were used to simultaneously measure at high temporal resolution the three velocity components of the flow at various locations upstream of the turbine and in the wake region and turbine power, respectively. Results show that for sufficiently low frequencies the instantaneous power generated by the turbine is modulated by the turbulent structure of the approach flow. The critical frequency above which the response of the turbine is decoupled from the turbulent flow structure is shown to vary linearly with the angular frequency of the rotor. The measurements elucidate the structure of the turbulent turbine wake, which is shown to persist for at least fifteen rotor diameters downstream of the rotor, and a new approach is proposed to quantify the wake recovery, based on the growth of the largest scale motions in the flow. Spectral analysis is employed to demonstrate the dominant effect of the tip vortices in the energy distribution in the near-wake region and uncover meandering motions.
Assortative mating is generalized to include social homogamy and phenotypic homogamy as two special cases. This generalization, called mixed homogamy, enables tests of hypotheses on the nature of assortment. Cultural inheritance is also extended to include two components: transmitted from parental environments, and non-transmitted sibship environment. Familial correlations are derived for a variety of relationships under mixed homogamy.
Rice, Cloninger & Reich (1980) showed that correlational data on American I.Q. is consistent with a rather low genetic heritability. Here we confirm their general results with a more parsimonious model. From phenotypic data alone, the estimates of genetic and cultural heritability are 0·31 and 0·42, respectively. Using environmental indices, the parsimonious estimates become 0·34 and 0·26, respectively.
Data from Neurospora, Drosophila, and the mouse support the mapping parameter conventionally used for man, exclude the Haldane, Kosambi, and Carter—Falconer functions, and suggest a refinement for centromere mapping. Different sexes, chromosome arms, and types of data are surprisingly consistent. Double recombination frequencies are accurately predicted, but triple recombination frequencies are overestimated. The centromere appears to act on interference as an obligatory chiasma. Recombination across the centromere conforms to a simple approximation, based on the interval Markov assumption with a common mapping parameter. These results imply that mapping of n loci requires estimation of at most n parameters, and the relation between map distances and all recombination frequencies is explicit.
In our commission the vice-president (VP) becomes the president, and a new VP is chosen from members of the Organizing Committee. The position of secretary was discontinued and its responsibilities incorporated into the VP position. The president announced that the new officers are Steven R. Federman (president) and Glenn M. Wahlgren (vice-president).
Electrogustometry is an accurate and increasingly popular method used to examine taste. However, its usefulness as a screening test is unknown.
We asked 114 subjects, some healthy but most with medical conditions possibly affecting taste, to rate their overall taste ability, on a scale of zero to 10. Those who had current symptoms related to taste– and who rated their taste as five or worse – were defined as ‘aberrant tasters’. We recorded automated electrogustometry thresholds, and visual analogue scale intensity ratings, for solutions of the four basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty and bitter). A visual analogue scale score of 50 was used as a cut-off point to identify ‘poor tasters’.
The sensitivity and specificity of electrogustometry in identifying abnormal taste function were low.
We conclude that automated electrogustometry is not a useful clinical screening method for taste disturbance in a population such as ours.
A population-based case–control study of diet, inherited susceptibility and prostate cancer was undertaken in the lowlands and central belt of Scotland to investigate the effect of phyto-oestrogen intake and serum concentrations on prostate cancer risk. A total of 433 cases and 483 controls aged 50–74 years were asked to complete a validated FFQ and provide a non-fasting blood sample. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found significant inverse associations with increased serum concentrations of enterolactone (adjusted OR 0·40, 95 % CI 0·22, 0·71] and with the consumption of soy foods (adjusted OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·91). However, no significant associations were observed for isoflavone intake or serum genistein, daidzein and equol. This study supports the hypotheses that soy foods and enterolactone metabolised from dietary lignans protect against prostate cancer in older Scottish men.
The standard method to determine the band structure of a condensed phase material is to (1) obtain a single crystal with a well defined surface and (2) map the bands with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (occupied or valence bands) and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (unoccupied or conduction bands). Unfortunately, in the case of Pu, the single crystals of Pu are either nonexistent, very small and/or having poorly defined surfaces. Furthermore, effects such as electron correlation and a large spin-orbit splitting in the 5f states have further complicated the situation. Thus, we have embarked upon the utilization of unorthodox electron spectroscopies, to circumvent the problems caused by the absence of large single crystals of Pu with well-defined surfaces. Our approach includes the techniques of resonant photoelectron spectroscopy , x-ray absorption spectroscopy [1,2,3,4], electron energy loss spectroscopy [2,3,4], Fano Effect measurements , and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy , including the utilization of micro-focused beams to probe single-crystallite regions of polycrystalline Pu samples. [2,3,6]
Regression analysis of a quantitative trait as a function of a single diallelic polymorphism has been extended to allelic association by composite likelihood under the Malecot model for multiple markers. We applied the method to 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 27 kb of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) gene in British families, localising a causal SNP between G2530A and 4656(CT)3/2 in the 3′ region, at a distance of 21.6±0.9 kb from the most proximal SNP T-5491C. Neither they nor the I/D polymorphism is causal. To clarify genetic parameters we applied combined segregation, linkage and association analysis. Stronger evidence for the 3′ region was obtained, with significant evidence of a lesser 5′ effect as reported in French and Nigerian families. However, rigorous confirmation requires that the causal SNPs be identified. Both Malecot and parametric analysis appear to have high power by comparison with alternative methods for localizing oligogenes and their causal polymorphisms.
Fourteen children aged 4 to 14 years with hip subluxation due to cerebral palsy (CP) were considered for a trial in a lying hip abduction system (Jenx Dreama, Jenx Limited, Sheffield, UK). Baseline data were recorded for 6 months, then assessments of the system were made for one year at 6 and 12 months. Assessments consisted of hip radiographs in the standard position, a parental questionnaire, and a sleep chart, which was completed by parents every Friday night during the trial. Three children could not enter the trial because of general sleep problems, and three could not complete it because they were unable to sleep with the system. One further child withdrew from the study just before the end because of unacceptable deterioration for which surgery was needed. The remaining seven children completed the trial and there was an overall improvement in rate of hip migration percentage on the right from 7% per annum in the baseline period to –4% with the system (p<0.05). On the left, changes were –3% and 0% respectively (ns). Average sleep at night changed from 9 to 9.4 hours (ns) and wakenings/night from 1 to 1.3 (ns). On the parental questionnaire, there were significant improvements noted with the system in position for seating and sleeping, ease of hip abduction for washing, and with pain reduction. This pilot study supports the use of this type of lying system but further studies are needed to establish the acceptability and efficacy of these systems, particularly in children aged 2 to 5 years when irreversible bony deformities of the hip tend to occur.
It has recently been suggested that lycra garments are helpful for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children, with athetosis, ataxia, and spasticity, were fitted with lycra garments (Kendall-Camp UK Ltd). Scores on the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scales were determined before and after wearing the garment for at least 6 hours a day for 6 weeks. Five children with motor problems representative of the whole group were investigated during a reach-and-grasp task by kinematic motion analysis; reflective markers were used with and without the garment. Carers were given a questionnaire concerning the practicalities of using the garments. All 12 children made improvements in at least one of the functional scales of the PEDI, and scores for the whole group showed significant gains (Wilcoxon χ2 test, self-help p<0.01; mobility p<0.5; social p<0.1). These changes were usually slight, although noticed by carers. Six children made gains of at least one scale of the caregiver assistance scores, two of the children showed losses (due to difficulties removing the garment for toileting), and four showed no change. Motion analysis indicated that (1) two children with athetosis had improved proximal stability in sitting and in smoothness of arm movements, (2) one child with ataxia had improved in proximal and distal stability, and (3) two children with spasticity had more jerky movements, although one improved in proximal stability. All children had problems in wearing the garments, including problems with toileting and incontinence of urine; the parents of only one child wanted to continue using it. Results suggest that the functional benefit of lycra garments for children with CP is mainly due to improvements in proximal stability but this should be weighed against the inconvenience and loss of independence.
The possible causes of excessive swallowing of air leading to bloating, which is common in Rett syndrome (RS), were investigated during feeding and at rest. Seven individuals with RS aged between 4 and 33 years (three with air bloat) underwent feeding videoflouroscopy and concurrent respiration monitoring. The results were compared with a randomly selected group of 11 individuals, aged between 2 and 16 years, with quadriplegic cerebral palsy and feeding problems, some of whom had mild air bloat. All individuals from both groups had isolated pharyngeal swallows and several mouth breathed; this may account for some air swallowing but not the severe air bloat characteristic of RS. Thirty-three individuals with RS aged between 3 and 44 years were monitored for nasal respiration, chest movements, swallowing, and vocal cord position at rest (between feeding). Twenty had air bloat, 17 of whom swallowed air during breath-holding in the same way, and three gulped air during hyperventilation. Of the 13 without air bloat, eight did not have recurrent breath-holding and five did, but without concurrent air swallowing. Several methods for reducing air swallowing in apnoea were investigated. The most successful was a dummy with an air leak, but this was poorly tolerated and could only be used for short periods of time. Apnoeas and air bloat are often worse when individuals are distressed and may in some individuals be reduced by anxiolytic medications.