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This study aimed to determine if pre-operative radiological scoring can reliably predict intra-operative difficulty and final cochlear electrode position in patients with advanced otosclerosis.
A retrospective cohort study of advanced otosclerosis patients who underwent cochlear implantation (n = 48, 52 ears) was compared with a larger cohort of post-lingually deaf adult patients (n = 1414) with bilateral hearing loss and normal cochlear anatomy. Pre-operative imaging for advanced otosclerosis patients and final electrode position were scored and correlated with intra-operative difficulty and speech outcomes.
Advanced otosclerosis patients benefit significantly from cochlear implantation. Mean duration of deafness was longer in the advanced otosclerosis group (19.5 vs 14.3 years; p < 0.05).
Anatomical changes in advanced otosclerosis can result in increased difficulty of surgery. Evidence of pre-operative cochlear luminal changes was associated with intra-operative difficult insertion and final non-scala tympani position. Nearly all electrodes implanted in the advanced otosclerosis cohort were peri-modiolar. No reports of facial nerve stimulation were observed.
In Cambodia, little is known about the state of ear and hearing care, or the roles providers or key stakeholders play in delivering services.
This was an exploratory study using semi-structured qualitative interviews and a questionnaire addressed to key stakeholders to explore their perceptions and experiences in providing services to people suffering from ear disease or hearing loss in Cambodia.
Several challenges were described including a lack of hearing services to meet the demand, especially outside Phnom Penh in primary care and aural rehabilitation. Supply-side challenges include a shortage of trained professionals, facilities and resources, poor co-ordination between providers, unclear referral pathways, and long wait times.
Now is an opportune time to build on the positive trend in providing integrated care for non-communicable diseases in Cambodia, through the integration of effective ear and hearing care into primary care and strengthening the package of activities delivered at government facilities.
Chronic suppurative otitis media is a major global disease disproportionately affecting low- and middle-income countries, but few studies have explored access to care for those with ear and hearing disorders.
In a tertiary hospital in Cambodia providing specialist ear services, a mixed method study was undertaken. This study had three arms: (1) quantitative analysis of patients undergoing ear surgery, (2) a questionnaire survey and (3) semi-structured in-depth interviews.
Patients presented with advanced middle-ear disease and associated hearing loss at rates that are amongst the highest per capita levels globally. Patients reported several structural, financial and socio-cultural barriers to treatment. This study showed a significant burden of ear disease in Cambodia, which reflects a delay in receiving timely and effective treatment.
This study highlights the opportunity to integrate effective ear and hearing care into primary care service provision, strengthening the package of activities delivered at government facilities.
Polarimetry of the far infrared emission from magnetically-aligned interstellar grains is one of the best ways of studying the magnetic field at the Galactic center. We describe the HAWC+ instrument, under development for flight on SOFIA starting in 2015, which will provide a major advance in capability for these critically important measurements.
We generalize the POD-based Galerkin method for post-transient flow data by incorporating Navier–Stokes equation constraints. In this method, the derived Galerkin expansion minimizes the residual like POD, but with the power balance equation for the resolved turbulent kinetic energy as an additional optimization constraint. Thus, the projection of the Navier–Stokes equation on to the expansion modes yields a Galerkin system that respects the power balance on the attractor. The resulting dynamical system requires no stabilizing eddy-viscosity term – contrary to other POD models of high-Reynolds-number flows. The proposed Galerkin method is illustrated with two test cases: two-dimensional flow inside a square lid-driven cavity and a two-dimensional mixing layer. Generalizations for more Navier–Stokes constraints, e.g. Reynolds equations, can be achieved in straightforward variation of the presented results.
We studied the ovipositional behavior of the citrus blackfly (CBF), Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, and found several plant species (mango, pink trumpet, and kumquat) to be as attractive as Citrus spp to ovipositing CBF at low densities. There is a significant (P < 0.01) positive correlation between the attractiveness of various host plants in our tests and the frequency of CBF occurrence on these plants in field surveys The host range of CBF increases with increasing CBF density. Oviposition by CBF on preferred hosts appears to occur at all CBF densities and is independent of their frequency in the environment We also found that CBF adults appear to be attracted to plant material reflecting light in the 500–600 nm range and it appears that this is the only long-range attractant operative.
Polarimetry at far-infrared wavelengths is a key tool for studying physical processes on size scales ranging from interstellar dust grains to entire galaxies. A multi-wavelength continuum polarimeter at these wavelengths will allow studies of thermal dust polarization in an effort to constrain the grains’ physical properties and test grain alignment theory. High spatial resolution (5–30 arcsec) and sensitive observations will measure the influence of magnetic fields on infrared cirrus clouds, the envelopes and disks of YSOs, outflows from both low- and high-mass star forming regions, and the relative strength of magnetic, gravitational, and turbulent effects in star- and cloud-formation.
Megapodes: an action plan for their conservation 1995–1999) was published in 1995 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN – The World Conservation Union. It is the twenty-eighth publication in its Action Plan series and the first for any group of birds. Action Plans published under the auspices of the Species Survival Commission are perceived as a means of making information on the status, threats and action required to safeguard species available to conservation planners and others in a position to take action. They are compiled by the appropriate taxon Specialist Group of the Species Survival Commission and their production and implementation is central to the Commission's activities. As well as the megapodes, Action Plans have recently been compiled for the partridges, quails, francolins, snowcocks and guineafowl, and for the pheasants. Stimulating interest in the conservation of these three groups of birds is the responsibility of three Specialist Groups which operate under the joint parentage of the World Pheasant Association, BirdLife International and the Species Survival Commission. The World Pheasant Association is the umbrella organization for five Galliformes Specialist Groups and was the driving force behind the production of these Action Plans, providing the means for the Specialist Groups to compile the information. This paper outlines the scope of these Action Plans and explains how they were compiled in the hope that this may assist the production of Action Plans for other bird groups.
The critically endangered Sichuan Hill-partridge Arborophila rufipectus occupies a restricted range in south-central China. Field surveys within this range were undertaken using line transects in 1996 and 1997. Calling males were recorded from nine subtropical forest tracts within an area totalling 1,793 km2 and consisting of primary, natural secondary and replanted broadleaf forest between 1,100 and 2,235 m elevation. The only sightings obtained were in primary forest. The mean density of calling males estimated from data collected during transect surveys was 0.48 ± 0.06 and 0.24 ± 0.16 calling birds km−2 in 1996 and 1997 respectively. There was no difference in density estimates for calling males between primary forest and secondary/replanted broadleaf forest. The principal threat to the continued survival of the species is clear-felling of primary forest, but clear-felled areas are often replanted with native broadleaf trees and records of Sichuan Hill-partridge calls in such plantations offers hope for its future survival. Forest management should be modified to make forestry practices more sympathetic to the conservation of the Sichuan Hill-partridge.
Although pneumonia is a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, comprehensive information about its causes and incidence in low- and middle-income countries is lacking. Active surveillance of hospitalized patients with pneumonia is ongoing in Thailand. Consenting patients are tested for seven bacterial and 14 viral respiratory pathogens by PCR and viral culture on nasopharyngeal swab specimens, serology on acute/convalescent sera, sputum smears and antigen detection tests on urine. Between September 2003 and December 2005, there were 1730 episodes of radiographically confirmed pneumonia (34·6% in children aged <5 years); 66 patients (3·8%) died. A recognized pathogen was identified in 42·5% of episodes. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was associated with 16·7% of all pneumonias, 41·2% in children. The viral pathogen with the highest incidence in children aged <5 years was RSV (417·1/100 000 per year) and in persons aged ⩾50 years, influenza virus A (38·8/100 000 per year). These data can help guide health policy towards effective prevention strategies.
A method for inducing primary nutritional ketosis in dairy cattle was developed in order to evaluate a novel technique for the monitoring of the development of ketosis through to clinical disease state. Six freshly calved, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were given a 500 g/kg crude protein pellet in small but frequent meals through an out-of-parlour feeder in conjunction with an allowance of grass silage restricted to 20 kg wet weight per day. Development of the disease was monitored through clinical signs, body condition scoring, weight change measures and metabolic profiling of plasma samples with particular reference to beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acid and glucose levels. Four animals within the disease model group became clinically ketotic with the remaining two animals showing signs of subclinical ketosis. A further four newly calved cows, which were maintained on a normal production ration to act as a control group, did not develop signs of ketosis.
A totally deaf with a multiple-channel cochler prosthesis obtained open-set speech discrimation using the telephone. CID Everyday Sentences were presented by telephone to the patient. Who repeated an average of 21 percent when a repeat of the sentences was permitted. This result is consistent with the patient's reports of telephone usage.
According to a now classic study of stock market price behavior by Fama , the empirical distributions of daily log price relatives are usually stable Paretian, non-Gaussian. However, there appears to have been substantial reluctance to accept Fama's  research results as indicative of a fundamental return generating process which is stable Paretian, non-Gaussian. Blattberg and Gonedes , Clarke , Officer , Praetz , and Press  have each in their own way questioned the Fama  results. Most recently Hsu, Miller, and Wichern (HMW)  have suggested that in periods of homogeneous activity for a firm the empirical distribution of rates of return on a common share may be Gaussian, in other words, that the fundamental return generating process may be normal.
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