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The widespread evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations has become an increasing concern for no-tillage (NT) growers in semiarid regions of the U.S. Great Plains. Lack of cost-effective and alternative new herbicide sites of action further exacerbates the problem of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds and threatens the long-term sustainability of prevailing cropping systems in the region. A recent decline in commodity prices and increasing herbicide costs to manage HR weeds has spurred research efforts to build a strong rationale for developing ecologically based integrated weed management (IWM) strategies in the U.S. Great Plains. Integration of cover crops (CCs) in NT dryland production systems potentially offers several ecosystem services, including weed control, soil health improvement, decline in selective pest pressure, and overall reduction in pest management inputs. This review article aims to document the role of CCs for IWM, with emphasis on exploring emerging weed issues; ecological, economic, and agronomic benefits of growing CCs; and constraints preventing adoption of CCs in NT cropping systems in the semiarid Great Plains. We attempt to focus on changes in weed management practices, their long-term impacts on weed seedbanks, weed shifts, and herbicide-resistance evolution in the most common weed species in the region. We also highlight current knowledge gaps and propose new research priorities based on an improved understanding of CC management strategies that will ultimately aid in achieving sustainable weed management goals and preserving natural resources in water-limited environments.
Brexpiprazole is a serotonin-noradrenaline-dopamine agent that binds with high affinity to multiple serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine receptors. In particular, Brexpiprazole is a partial agonist at dopamine D2/D3 and 5-HT1A receptors and an antagonist at 5-HT2A and norepinephrine alpha1B receptors.
We assessed the efficacy and safety of brexpiprazole versus placebo as adjunctive therapy to anti-depressant therapy (ADT) in subjects with MDD who demonstrated inadequate response to ADT.
This trial had 3 phases: a screening phase (7-28 days); a prospective phase (Phase A): 8-week, single-blind placebo plus an investigator-determined, open-label ADT; a randomized phase (Phase B): 6-week, double-blind, adjunctive brexpiprazole (2 mg/day) vs. placebo in patients with an inadequate response to ADT.
The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from the end of Phase A (Week 8) to the end of Phase B (Week 14) in MADRS Total Score. The key secondary endpoint was the change in mean SDS score. Other secondary endpoints were mean change in CGI-S, IDS-R, HAMD and HAMA.
Of 379 randomized patients, completion rates at Week 14 were high (92.9%). Statistically significant improvements in mean MADRS Total score were observed for subjects receiving adjunctive brexpiprazole 2mg/day compared with placebo (p=0.0001) at endpoint. In addition, on all secondary endpoints Brexpiprazole showed a statistically significant advantage over placebo.
Commonly reported adverse events in the brexpiprazole group (>5% and more than twice placebo) were weight gain (8.0%), akathisia (7.4%).
Brexpiprazole was effective and well tolerated as adjunctive treatment for MDD patients with an inadequate response to ADT.
The Rio Grande Cone is a major fanlike depositional feature in the continental slope of the Pelotas Basin, Southern Brazil. Two representative sediment cores collected in the Cone area were retrieved using a piston core device. In this work, the organic matter (OM) in the sediments was characterized for a continental vs. marine origin using chemical proxies to help constrain the origin of gas in hydrates. The main contribution of OM was from marine organic carbon based on the stable carbon isotope (δ13C-org) and total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (TOC:TN) analyses. In addition, the 14C data showed important information about the origin of the OM and we suggest some factors that could modify the original organic matter and therefore mask the “real” 14C ages: (1) biological activity that could modify the carbon isotopic composition of bulk terrestrial organic matter values, (2) the existence of younger sediments from mass wasting deposits unconformably overlying older sediments, and (3) the deep-sediment-sourced methane contribution due to the input of “old” (>50 ka) organic compounds from migrating fluids.
The inefficiencies of the current pipeline from discovery to clinical approval of drugs demand a surrogate method to indicate adverse drug reactions, e.g. liver damage. Organ-on-chip (OOC) models would be an ideal, rapid, and human-specific alternate, which would render animal testing obsolete. The ground-breaking ability of OOCs and Multi-OOC constructs is the accurate simulation of the in vivo conditions of human organs leading to precise drug screens for cytotoxicity and/or drug efficacy at a faster pace and lesser cost. Here we discuss the innovation, architecture, and the progress of OOCs towards human body-on-a-chip.
Rulemaking gives agencies significant power to change public policy, but agencies do not exercise this power in a vacuum. The separation of powers system practically guarantees that, at times, agencies will be pushed and pulled in different directions by Congress and the president. We argue that these forces critically affect the volume of rules produced by an agency. We develop an account of agency rulemaking in light of these factors and test our hypotheses on a data set of agency rules from 1995 to 2007. Our results show that even after accounting for factors specific to each agency, agencies do, in fact, adjust the quantity of rules they produce in response to separation of powers oversight. Further analysis shows that the president’s influence is limited to those agencies that he has made a priority.
In vitro studies have shown several beneficial properties of resveratrol. Epidemiological evidence is still scarce, probably because of the difficulty in estimating resveratrol exposure accurately. The current study aimed to assess the relationships between acute and habitual dietary resveratrol and wine intake and urinary resveratrol excretion in a European population. A stratified random subsample of 475 men and women from four countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study, who had provided 24-h urine samples and completed a 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) on the same day, were included. Acute and habitual dietary data were collected using standardised 24-HDR software and a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire, respectively. Phenol-Explorer was used to estimate the intake of resveratrol and other stilbenes. Urinary resveratrol was analysed using tandem MS. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between estimated dietary intakes of resveratrol and other stilbenes and consumption of wine, their main food source, were very high (r>0·9) when measured using dietary questionnaires and were slightly lower with 24-HDR (r>0·8). Partial Spearman’s correlations between urinary resveratrol excretion and intake of resveratrol, total stilbenes or wine were found to be higher when using the 24-HDR (R2partial approximately 0·6) than when using the dietary questionnaires (R2partial approximately 0·5). Moderate to high correlations between dietary resveratrol, total stilbenes and wine, and urinary resveratrol concentrations were observed. These support the earlier findings that 24-h urinary resveratrol is an effective biomarker of both resveratrol and wine intakes. These correlations also support the validity of the estimation of resveratrol intake using the dietary questionnaire and Phenol-Explorer.
To develop a risk score to predict probability of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE).
Retrospective case-control study.
Two large community hospitals.
Hospitalized adults with Enterobacteriaceae BSI between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2015.
Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for ESBLE BSI. Point allocation in extended-spectrum β-lactamase prediction score (ESBL-PS) was based on regression coefficients.
Among 910 patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSI, 42 (4.6%) had ESBLE bloodstream isolates. Most ESBLE BSIs were community onset (33 of 42; 79%), and 25 (60%) were due to Escherichia coli. Independent risk factors for ESBLE BSI and point allocation in ESBL-PS included outpatient procedures within 1 month (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1–22.9; 1 point), prior infections or colonization with ESBLE within 12 months (aOR, 26.8; 95% CI, 7.0–108.2; 4 points), and number of prior courses of β-lactams and/or fluoroquinolones used within 3 months of BSI: 1 course (aOR, 6.3; 95% CI, 2.7–14.7; 1 point), ≥2 courses (aOR, 22.0; 95% CI, 8.6–57.1; 3 points). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the ESBL-PS model was 0.86. Patients with ESBL-PSs of 0, 1, 3, and 4 had estimated probabilities of ESBLE BSI of 0.7%, 5%, 24%, and 44%, respectively. Using ESBL-PS ≥3 to indicate high risk provided a negative predictive value of 97%.
ESBL-PS estimated patient-specific risk of ESBLE BSI with high discrimination. Incorporation of ESBL-PS with acute severity of illness may improve adequacy of empirical antimicrobial therapy and reduce carbapenem utilization.
To assess the efficacy of dynamic slow motion video endoscopy as a test of eustachian tube function based on its correlation with the eustachian tube swallow test.
The eustachian tube swallow test and dynamic slow motion video endoscopy were performed on 100 clinically normal middle ears of adults undergoing rigid nasal endoscopy for various indications. The dynamic slow motion video endoscopy findings were interpreted by three observers who were blind to the results of the eustachian tube swallow test, and the findings of both techniques were compared.
There was a statistically significant correlation between the dynamic slow motion video endoscopy and eustachian tube swallow test results for some of the more lenient criteria. Five of the 100 eustachian tubes had a floppy medial cartilaginous lamina which appeared to contribute to the eustachian tube dysfunction.
Dynamic slow motion video endoscopy appeared to over-diagnose eustachian tube dysfunction when used as a standalone test of eustachian tube function. However, when used in combination with other tests of eustachian tube function, it can provide valuable information regarding the structural and functional status of the pharyngeal end of the eustachian tube.
We investigate theoretically the nonlinear state of ideal straight rolls in the Rayleigh–Bénard system of a fluid layer heated from below with a porous medium using a Galerkin method. Applying the Oberbeck–Boussinesq approximation, binary mixtures with positive separation ratio are studied and compared with one-component fluids. Our results for the structural properties of roll convection resemble qualitatively the situation in the Rayleigh–Bénard system without porous medium except for the fact that the streamlines of binary mixtures are deformed in the so-called Soret regime. The deformation of the streamlines is explained by means of the Darcy equation which is used to describe the transport of momentum. In addition to the properties of the rolls, their stability against arbitrary infinitesimal perturbations is investigated. We compute stability balloons for the pure fluid case as well as for a wide parameter range of Lewis numbers and separation ratios that are typical for binary gas and fluid mixtures. The stability regions of rolls are found to be restricted by a crossroll, a zigzag and a new type of oscillatory instability mechanism, which can be related to the crossroll mechanism.
The Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill developed by Ice Coring and Drilling Services under contract with the US National Science Foundation is an electromechanical ice-drill system designed to take 122mm ice cores to depths of 4000 m. The new drill system was field-tested near Summit camp in central Greenland during the spring/summer of 2006. Testing was conducted to verify the performance of the DISC drill system and its individual components and to determine the modifications required prior to the system’s planned deployment for coring at the WAIS Divide site in Antarctica in the following year. The experiments, results and the drill crew’s experiences with the DISC drill during testing are described and discussed.
Work has been underway at JMU in the Department of Chemistry through an NSF-NUE grant to develop an evolutionary approach to curriculum development across the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. Preliminary assessment data suggests that there exists a profound misunderstanding amongst graduating chemistry majors about basic aspects of nanotechnology as revealed by the NAI. Specifically, there are misconceptions about the sizes of and forces acting on the molecular-scale which is fundamental to any deep understanding of nanometer-scale phenomena. This is particularly alarming since senior-level undergraduate students majoring in chemistry should have a clearer understanding of molecular interactions than other STEM disciplines. A more careful, coordinated and sustained approach to teaching nanometer-scale phenomena must be undertaken in order to address these misconceptions and better prepare students the future workforce in nanoscience and nanotechnology.
Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) was combined with Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS), to characterize changes in the structure of the colloidal particles of reconstituted skim milk of diameter >50 nm (aggregates of casein and calcium phosphate known as casein micelles) with the changes in partitioning (with the addition of salt) of calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and casein between the serum and colloidal phases of the milk. The number weighted particle size distributions are determined. These are well represented by a log-normal distribution. Methods are presented for estimating the relative contributions of scattering and absorbance to the SdFFF detector signal and for taking both into account when analysing SdFFF data. The values found for the effective density of the casein micelles were in good agreement with the literature and ranged from (1·06–1·08 g cm−3) according to the composition of micelles. The changes in the scattering intensity as determined by PCS correlated with the changes in the particle composition. Although the concentrations of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) (1·1–3·5 g/kg milk) and micellar casein (18·1–27·2 g/kg milk) varied considerably only small changes in the size distribution of particles >50 nm diameter were observed except for milk to which 30 mmol Pi+10 mmol Ca/kg milk had been added where the particle size distribution shows a swelling of the particles consistent with a lower than expected value for the particle density. These observations suggest that the micelles have the ability to both lose (depleted micelles) and accommodate (enriched micelles) more casein, calcium and inorganic phosphate in their interior, thus confirming the model of the micelles which postulates an open structure allowing freedom of movement of casein and small ions.
In the following set of letters Augustine writes to Apringius, proconsul of Africa, and to his brother Marcellinus, urging mercy for the Donatists who have been convicted of the murder and mutilation respectively of two Catholic priests.
Augustine the bishop greets in the Lord his distinguished and deservedly notable lord and beloved son Marcellinus.
(1) I have been informed that the Circumcellions and clergy of Donatus' sect who were taken from the diocese of Hippo by those responsible for public order to stand trial for their activities have in fact been heard by your noble self. Most of them have confessed to committing the murder of Restitutus, the Catholic priest, and to beating Innocent, another Catholic priest, and to gouging out the latter's eye and cutting off his finger. Consequently, I am deeply stricken by the worry that your exalted self might decide to have them punished so harshly by law that the sufferings they will endure correspond to those they have inflicted. I write, therefore, to beg you by the faith you have in Christ, through the mercy of our Lord Christ himself, neither to do this yourself nor to allow it to be done at all.
Now it might be possible for us to turn a blind eye to their deaths, when they were clearly not summoned to trial because we accused them; rather, those responsible for keeping an eye on the preservation of public peace indicted them.