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In this study, we present a comprehensive dual-band ambient radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting system, consisting of rectenna and power management circuit, to harvest energy from 2.45 and 5.8 GHz Wi-Fi. The rectenna employs a metamaterial antenna based on a split-ring resonator, which possesses omni-directional radiation pattern at both frequencies and compact size (0.18λ × 0.25λ at 2.45 GHz). The dual-band rectifier yields the highest efficiency of 42% at 2.45 GHz and 1 dBm input power, 30% at 5.8 GHz and − 7 dBm input power. The maximum RF-DC efficiency for each band is 72% at − 5 dBm and 27% at − 2 dBm, respectively. The power management circuit, consisting of a storing capacitor and a boost converter, is integrated to produce a stable, sufficient output voltage. The energy harvesting system, with its comprehensiveness, is suitable for supplying low-power wireless sensor nodes for indoor applications.
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