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In the past 10–15 years, the government of China has made various efforts in tackling excessive antibiotics use. Yet, little is known about their effects at rural primary care settings. This study aimed to determine the impact of government policies and the COVID-19 pandemic on antibiotic prescribing practices at such settings utilizing data from separate studies carried out pre- and during the pandemic, in 2016 and 2021 in Anhui province, China, using identical sampling and survey approaches. Data on antibiotics prescribed, diagnosis, socio-demographic, etc., were obtained through non-participative observation and a structured exit survey. Data analysis comprised mainly descriptive comparisons of 1153 and 762 patients with respiratory infections recruited in 2016 and 2021, respectively. The overall antibiotics prescription rate decreased from 89.6% in 2016 to 69.1% in 2021, and the proportion of prescriptions for two or more classes of antibiotics was estimated as 35.9% in 2016 and 11.0% in 2021. There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of days from symptom onset to clinic visits between the year groups. In conclusion, measures to constrain excessive prescription of antibiotics have led to some improvements at the rural primary care level, and the COVID-19 pandemic has had varying effects on antibiotic use.
To explore the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the squeaking silkmoths Rhodinia, a genus of wild silkmoths in the family Saturniidae of Lepidoptera, and reveal phylogenetic relationships, the mitogenome of Rhodinia fugax Butler was determined. This wild silkmoth spins a green cocoon that has potential significance in sericulture, and exhibits a unique feature that its larvae can squeak loudly when touched. The mitogenome of R. fugax is a circular molecule of 15,334 bp long and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an A + T-rich region, consistent with previous observations of Saturniidae species. The 370-bp A + T-rich region of R. fugax contains no tandem repeat elements and harbors several features common to the Bombycidea insects, but microsatellite AT repeat sequence preceded by the ATTTA motif is not present. Mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis shows that R. fugax belongs to Attacini, instead of Saturniini. This study presents the first mitogenome for Rhodinia genus.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
In October 2015, the Chinese Government announced that the one-child policy had finally been replaced by a universal two-child policy. China’s universal two-child policy is highly significant because, for the first time in 36 years, no one in an urban city is restricted to having just one child. This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore future fertility intentions and factors influencing individual reproductive behaviour (whether to have two children) in Dalian City. A total of 1370 respondents were interviewed. The respondents’ mean ideal number of children was only 1.73, and urban respondents’ sex preference was symmetrical. A total of 19.0% of the respondents were unmarried, 64.5% were married and had childbearing experience and only 6.3% of married respondents had two children. Among the 1370 participants, 30.4% stated that they would have a second child, while 69.6% refused to have a second child in the future. Binary logistic regression analysis (Model 1) showed that the following characteristics were associated with having only one child in the future: being female, being older, having a lower education level, being born in Dalian, having a lower family income and reporting one child as the ideal number of children. Model 2 (comprising only respondents with childbearing experience) showed that respondents who were female, had a lower family income and were unable to obtain additional financial support from parents were more likely to intend to stick at one child. In addition, respondents’ ideal number of children and childbearing experiences had a significant influence on future fertility intentions. These results suggest that fertility intentions and reproductive behaviours are still below those needed for replacement level fertility in Dalian City. China’s policymakers should pay more attention to these factors (socioeconomic characteristics, economic factors, desired number of children and childbearing experiences) and try to increase individual reproductive behaviour.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Impaired neuromuscular control could lead to the failure in activation and deactivation of the target muscles in a timely manner, with the concurrence of activities of non-targeted muscles. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Stroke leads to impaired capacity to manipulate objects with the hand in terms of timing and strength of grasp. The influence of abnormal coupling across more proximal arm muscles post stroke on the failure in normal functioning of finger flexor muscle activity is of interest to investigate. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We have recruited 12 participants with stroke hemiparesis in the sub-acute or chronic stage. Motor impairment of the arm was assessed using electromyography (EMG) and the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity (FMUE) assessment. Participants were requested to flex and relax the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints against motorized resistance in response to audible tones to determine timing and strength during flexion. They were asked to flex maximally, as quickly as possible, in response to the first of a pair of tones, and relax as quickly as possible after the second tone. Delays in initiation and termination were evaluated using EMG responses versus a predefined threshold. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate greater delays in grasp initiation as well as in grasp termination in participants with a greater extent of abnormal coupling across more proximal muscles of the upper extremity in comparison to participants with a less extent, using the results of the FMUE assessment. Also it is expected that participants with a greater extent of the flexion synergy produce a less extent of force generation. The EMG results will show that activities of more proximal arm muscles precede the initiation of MCP flexion and their activity termination precedes that of MCP flexion, significantly more in participants with a greater extent of the flexion synergy. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The flexion synergy over the arm following stroke affects the timing and strength of hand grasp. Impaired neuromuscular control could lead to the failure in activation and deactivation of the target muscles in a timely manner, with the concurrence of activities of non-targeted muscles.
Thermal conductivity behaviors are one of the most important evaluations of carbon fiber-reinforced carbon matrix (C/C) composites in the field of thermal protective structures. In order to deepen the understanding of the thermal conductivity behaviors of C/C composites, the out-of-plane thermal conductivity of C/C composites is studied by considering voids and the fiber volume fractions. The representative volume element (RVE) models of microscale and mesoscale are proposed. The parameters of the RVE models are captured by X-ray micro-computed tomography. The carbon matrix equivalent models and fiber volume fraction models along the z-direction were established. The effects of the porosity and fiber volume fraction along the z-direction on the thermal conductivity were analyzed. The proposed model was validated by experimental results at room temperature. Further, the numerical methods developed in this study can provide guidance for predicting the thermal conductivity of C/C composites with complex structures.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Damage to the sensorimotor cortex areas or/and motor/sensory pathways after a stroke could lead the motor system to a loss of controllability for joints. We investigate the loss of individual joint controllability called a loss of individualization during arm movement, which would provide an insight into abnormal motor coordination. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We recruit 12 chronic stroke survivors with Fugl-Meyer score between 26 and 50. A robotic exoskeleton with minimum mechanical resistance is equipped to measure the movements of the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints, respectively. Surface EMGs on muscles related to the joints are recorded using 11 wireless pre-amplified electrodes. Participants are asked to move the shoulder, elbow, or wrist joint individually throughout their range of motion, without moving the other joints voluntarily. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It would be expected that participants show more difficulty in individualization of the distal joint in comparison with the proximal joint. A reduced joint range of motion would be observed in a descending order of the wrist, elbow and shoulder. These results are in line with the proximal-to-distal gradient of motor deficits after a stroke. Intention of moving the distal joint would induce a greater deviation in the position of the proximal joint than that of the distal joint when moving the proximal joint. A non-negative matrix factorization algorithm would reveal a decreased number of muscle synergies in the groups with a loss of individuation in comparison with the groups with no loss. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We demonstrate that a stroke leads to a lack of individual joint controllability, with a greater deficits on the distal joint, and that it is related to a decreased number of muscle synergies across the corresponding joints. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: N/A.
We find that corporate innovation is positively related to board diversity as measured by a multidimensional index. The benefit of board diversity is more pronounced for firms with more complex operations, more experienced boards, and stronger external governance, suggesting that diverse boards have superior advising capacity. We find evidence to suggest that firms with diverse boards engage in more exploratory innovations and develop new technology in unfamiliar areas. As a result, they create a larger number of both most-cited and uncited patents. Finally, of the six different aspects of board diversity, professional diversity matters the most for corporate innovation.
This paper presents a notched band ultra-wideband bandpass filter using a single perturbed quint-mode half-mode substrate-integrated waveguide cavity. The cavity is perturbed by loading four stubs at two corners of the magnetic walls of the single cavity. The variable parameters of stubs are selected to move down the first five resonant modes to the predetermined passband during the design process. Meanwhile, microstrip lines with a transition structure located on two loaded stubs are employed to feed the resonator. Moreover, the filter also firstly designs a notched band by introducing a complementary split-ring resonator inside the cavity to mitigate potential interference signals at 8 GHz (satellite communication). Finally, a prototype filter was implemented and measured to verify.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
Late Carboniferous magmatism in the Chinese Altai provides an important view of geodynamic processes active during crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, five representative peraluminous granite plutons from the Chinese Altai were selected for systematic geochronological, geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic analyses (Table 1). These granites were emplaced between 449 and 327 Ma in an active subduction zone, and have moderate to high SiO2 (66.54–76.13 wt%), moderate Na2O+K2O (6.27–7.66 wt%), and high Al2O3 contents (12.43–16.18 wt%). All granite samples in this study showed significant decoupling of the Nd and Hf isotope systems. Results show negative εNd(t) values (−3.3 to −0.9), and predominantly positive εHf(t) values (+0.24 to +8.01, n=57) except for a few negative εHf(t) values (−7.44 to −0.03, n=9), high Mg# values (28.69–53.33), high Nd/Hf ratios (4.26–43.57), and enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g. Pb, Th, and U), suggesting that the granites were derived from the partial melting of oceanic sediments and the associated mantle wedge, with fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite. In situ zircon Hf isotopic analyses yield negative εHf(t) values from −30.6 to −13.7 for the zircon xenocrysts. The U–Pb ages and Hf isotopic ratios of these zircon xenocrysts were probably inherited from oceanic sediments. Zircon saturation temperatures suggest that these peraluminous granites were emplaced at 537–765°C. We propose that: (1) the Nd isotopic system more faithfully reflects the source of peraluminous magmas in the Chinese Altai than the Hf isotopic system, and (2) the oceanic sediment recycling was an important process during continental growth in the CAOB.
Excavation of the Han Dynasty chambered tomb at Laoguanshan in Chengdu, south-west China, has provided the earliest known evidence of pattern loom technology. Four model looms, along with accompanying artefacts and figurines relating to the weaving process, give insight into the technique of jin silk production. The discovery is hugely significant as it provides the first direct evidence of pattern-weave textile production in ancient China. Jin silk, made using this method, was both valuable and widely distributed, and the design of the machine influenced the invention of later looms and the spread of technology throughout Eurasia and Europe, representing great technological accomplishment for the second century BC.
To evaluate the effects of different anthropogenic activities on zooplankton and the pelagic ecosystem, we conducted seasonal cruises in 2010 to assess spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of Xiangshan Bay, a subtropical semi-enclosed bay in China. The evaluation included five different areas: a kelp farm, an oyster farm, a fish farm, the thermal discharge area of a power plant, and an artificial reef, and we aimed to identify whether anthropogenic activities dominated spatial variation in the mesozooplankton communities. The results demonstrated clear spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of the studied areas, dominantly driven by natural hydrographic properties, except in the area near the thermal discharge outlet of the power station. In the outlet area, thermal shock caused by the discharge influenced the mesozooplankton community by decreasing abundance and biomass throughout the four seasons, even causing a shift in the dominant species near the outlet during summer from Acartia pacifica to eurythermal and warm water taxa. Unique features of the mesozooplankton community in the oyster farm may be due to the combined effects of oyster culture and the natural environment in the branch harbour. However, kelp and fish culture, and the construction of an artificial reef did not exert any obvious influence on the mesozooplankton communities up to 2010, probably because of the small scale of the aquaculture and a time lag in the rehabilitation effects of the artificial reef. Thus, our results suggested that the dominant factors influencing spatial variations of mesozooplankton communities in Xiangshan Bay were still the natural hydrographic properties, but the thermal discharge was an anthropogenic activity that changed the pelagic ecosystem, and should be supervised.
Over the past decade the integration of ultrafast spectroscopy with nanoscience has greatly propelled the development of nanoscience, as the key information gleaned from the mechanistic studies with the assistance of ultrafast spectroscopy enables a deeper understanding of the structure–function interplay and various interactions involved in the nanosystems. This mini-review presents an overview of the recent advances achieved in our ultrafast spectroscopy laboratory that address the ultrafast dynamics and related mechanisms in several representative nanomaterial complex systems by means of femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. We attempt to convey instructive, consistent information regarding the important processes, pathways, dynamics, and interactions involved in the nanomaterial complex systems, most of which exhibit excellent performance in photocatalysis.
The 〈001〉-textured 36Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3–30Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–34PbTiO3 (36PIN–30PMN–34PT) ceramics were successfully prepared by the templated grain growth method using BaTiO3 (BT) templates with an average edge length of 10 μm and a thickness of about 0.5 μm. The highest Lotgering factor of 95% has been achieved for the textured ceramics with 5 wt% BT templates sintered at 1240 °C. The Curie temperature (TC) and dielectric constant (εr) of the textured 36PIN–30PMN–34PT ceramics were 225 °C and 2850, respectively. The piezoelectric constant d33 of the textured samples was 780 pC/N and almost 2 times higher than that of random 36PIN–30PMN–34PT samples. The planar mode electromechanical coupling coefficient kp was 59% for the textured samples. Unipolar strain-field measurements for the textured ceramics exhibited 0.34% strain at 4 kV/mm.
This paper presents a compact microstrip tri-band bandpass filter (BPF) using two multimode stepped-impedance resonators (SIRs) with a 0° feed structure. The fundamental odd-mode and even-mode resonant frequencies and the third resonant frequency are utilized to determine the center frequencies of the tri-band filter. The mode-splitting technique is used by combining two SIRs with electrical coupling. Therefore, two modes generate one passband and the bandwidths can be controlled by the electrical coupling strength. The 0° feed network is applied to create one pair of transmission zeros at each side of all the triple passbands, resulting in high selectivity. Finally, a tri-band BPF with the central frequencies of 1.8, 2.4, and 5.8 GHz, and respective fractional bandwidths of 8.9, 12.5, and 5.3% are designed and fabricated. The simulated and measured results show a good agreement.
We have constructed a Main galaxy subsample of 67777 galaxies with redshifts in the range 0.08 ≤ z ≤ 0.12 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. Using cluster analysis, two isolated Main galaxy samples were extracted from this subsample. The two isolated Main galaxy samples identified at different radii have the same properties. Additionally, we find fewer early-type galaxies in isolated Main galaxy samples than in a close double galaxy sample.
The poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) based ferroelectric and relaxor materials have been proved to be good electrocaloric (EC) materials. To further enhance the EC effect in ferroelectric relaxor terpolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)), composites such as polymer-polymer blends and nanocomposites filled with inorganic nanoparticles are fabricated and investigated. It is found that the addition of small amount of filler (such as P(VDF-TrFE) or nano-ZrO2) can increase terpolymer’s crystallinity and enhance its relaxor behavior through interface couplings. The increased crystallinity and enhanced relaxor behavior together result in enhanced electrocaloric effect. The results demonstrate the promise of composite approaches in tailoring and enhancing ECE in the relaxor terpolymers.
Using vinyl-silsesquioxane modified with various amounts of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium tetrabutoxide (TTB), two kinds of hybrid films, film-vinyl-silsesquioxane-TEOS (f-VSTE) and film-vinyl-silsesquioxane-TTB (f-VSTT), were prepared. The average transparency (AT) of the modified films was measured in the ranges of the visible light region (400–750 nm) and in the near-infrared region (750–2500 nm). The AT values in these ranges are about 88% to 94%, indicating that these high-AT films can provide crops with growth energy and improvement of the photosynthetic process efficiency. The TEOS additions result in a hybrid structure (containing SiO2); an adequate addition can cause an increase in the AT radiation from sunlight. On the other hand, the TTB additions result in a hybrid structure (containing TiO2) that causes a decrease in the AT. These results were validated using molecular dynamic simulation and were calculated (with Materials Stutio software) using the density of states and the energy-band structure of the vinyl-SSO, SiO2, and TiO2 building blocks.
The statistical analysis of heating effect and the cross-correlation analysis of both electron temperature and loop voltage have been done during electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). The behavior of runaway electrons in the flat-top phase during ECRH are analyzed using experimental data. It is shown that the runaway population is indeed suppressed or even quenched when the toroidal electric field ET is reduced below the threshold electric field Eth by high-power and long-duration ECRH. The physical mechanism of runaway suppression is explored by the resonant interaction between the electron cyclotron waves and the energetic runaway electrons.