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The study of the sobriety of Scott spaces has got a relatively long history in domain theory. Lawson and Hoffmann independently proved that the Scott space of every continuous directed complete poset (usually called domain) is sober. Johnstone constructed the first directed complete poset whose Scott space is non-sober. Soon after, Isbell gave a complete lattice with a non-sober Scott space. Based on Isbell’s example, Xu, Xi, and Zhao showed that there is even a complete Heyting algebra whose Scott space is non-sober. Achim Jung then asked whether every countable complete lattice has a sober Scott space. The main aim of this paper is to answer Jung’s problem by constructing a countable complete lattice whose Scott space is non-sober. This lattice is then modified to obtain a countable distributive complete lattice with a non-sober Scott space. In addition, we prove that the topology of the product space $\Sigma P\times \Sigma Q$ coincides with the Scott topology of the product poset $P\times Q$ if the set Id(P) and Id(Q) of all incremental ideals of posets P and Q are both countable. Based on this, it is deduced that a directed complete poset P has a sober Scott space, if Id(P) is countable and $\Sigma P$ is coherent and well filtered. In particular, every complete lattice L with Id(L) countable has a sober Scott space.
Based on the framework of disjunctive propositional logic, we first provide a syntactic representation for Scott domains. Precisely, we establish a category of consistent disjunctive sequent calculi with consequence relations, and show it is equivalent to that of Scott domains with Scott-continuous functions. Furthermore, we illustrate the approach to solving recursive domain equations by introducing some standard domain constructions, such as lifting and sums. The subsystems relation on consistent finitary disjunctive sequent calculi makes these domain constructions continuous. Solutions to recursive domain equations are given by constructing the least fixed point of a continuous function.
Sobriety, well-filteredness, and monotone convergence are three of the most important properties of topological spaces extensively studied in domain theory. Some other weak forms of sobriety and well-filteredness have also been investigated by some authors. In this paper, we introduce the notion of Θ-fine spaces, which provides a unified approach to such properties. In addition, this general approach leads to the definitions of some new topological properties.
Kaempferol (KAE) is one of the most common dietary flavonols possessing biological activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Although previous studies have reported the biological activity of KAE on a variety of cells, it is not clear whether KAE plays a similar role in oocyte and embryo in vitro culture systems. This study investigated the effect of KAE addition to in vitro maturation on the antioxidant capacity of embryos in porcine oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. The effects of kaempferol on oocyte quality in porcine oocytes were studied based on the expression of related genes, reactive oxygen species, glutathione and mitochondrial membrane potential as criteria. The rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in oocytes treated with 0.1 µm KAE than in control oocytes. The mRNA level of the apoptosis-related gene Caspase-3 was significantly lower in the blastocysts derived from KAE-treated oocytes than in the control group and the mRNA expression of the embryo development-related genes COX2 and SOX2 was significantly increased in the KAE-treated group compared with that in the control group. Furthermore, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was significantly decreased and that of glutathione was significantly increased after KAE treatment. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was increased and the activity of Caspase-3 was significantly decreased in the KAE-treated group compared with that in the control group. Taken together, these results suggested that KAE is beneficial for the improvement of embryo development by inhibiting oxidative stress in porcine oocytes.
We build a logical system named a conjunctive sequent calculus which is a conjunctive fragment of the classical propositional sequent calculus in the sense of proof theory. We prove that a special class of formulae of a consistent conjunctive sequent calculus forms a bounded complete continuous domain without greatest element (for short, a proper BC domain), and each proper BC domain can be obtained in this way. More generally, we present conjunctive consequence relations as morphisms between consistent conjunctive sequent calculi and build a category which is equivalent to that of proper BC domains with Scott-continuous functions. A logical characterization of purely syntactic form for proper BC domains is obtained.
The notion of an m-algebraic lattice, where m stands for a cardinal number, includes numerous special cases, such as complete lattice, algebraic lattice, and prime algebraic lattice. In formal concept analysis, one fundamental result states that every concept lattice is complete, and conversely, each complete lattice is isomorphic to a concept lattice. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an m-approximable concept on each context. The m-approximable concept lattice derived from the notion is an m-algebraic lattice, and conversely, every m-algebraic lattice is isomorphic to an m-approximable concept lattice of some context. Morphisms on m-algebraic lattices and those on contexts are provided, called m-continuous functions and m-approximable morphisms, respectively. We establish a categorical equivalence between LATm, the category of m-algebraic lattices and m-continuous functions, and CXTm, the category of contexts and mapproximable morphisms.We prove that LATm is cartesian closed whenevermis regular and m > 2. By the equivalence of LATm and CXTm, we obtain that CXTm is also cartesian closed under same circumstances. The notions of a concept, an approximable concept, and a weak approximable concept are showed to be special cases of that of an m-approximable concept.
Recently, Rusu and Ciobanu established that for a continuous domain L, a subset B of L is a basis if and only if B is dense with respect to the d-topology, called the density topology, on L. In situations where directed completeness fails, Erné has proposed in 1991 an alternative definition of continuity called s2-continuity which remedied the lack of stability of continuity under the classical Dedekind–MacNeille completion. In this paper, we show how the ‘Rusu–Ciobanu’ type of characterization can be formulated and established over the class of s2-continuous posets with appropriate modifications. Although we obtain more properties of essential topologies and density topologies on s2-continuous posets, respectively.
We introduce a new concept of continuity of posets, called θ-continuity. Topological characterizations of θ-continuous posets are put forward. We also present two types of dcpo-completion of posets which are Dθ-completion and Ds2-completion. Connections between these notions of continuity and dcpo-completions of posets are investigated. The main results are (1) a poset P is θ-continuous iff its θ-topology lattice is completely distributive iff it is a quasi θ-continuous and meet θ-continuous poset iff its Dθ-completion is a domain; (2) the Dθ-completion of a poset B is isomorphic to a domain L iff B is a θ-embedded basis of L; (3) if a poset P is θ-continuous, then the Dθ-completion Dθ(P) is isomorphic to the round ideal completion RI(P, ≪θ).
In this paper, we introduce the notion of consistent F-augmented contexts by adding a special family of finite subsets into the structure of a formal context, which essentially establishes the basis of the representation of general algebraic domains. In particular, we investigate the association rule systems which are derived from the consistent F-augmented contexts and propose the notion of formal association rule systems. By the notion of antecedent connections, we obtain the equivalence between the category of formal association rule systems and that of algebraic domains, which demonstrates that the proposed notion of formal association rule systems provides a concrete approach to representing algebraic domains.
We present conditions guaranteeing the existence of non-trivial unstable sets for compact invariant sets in semiflows with certain compactness conditions, and then establish the existence of such unstable sets for an unstable equilibrium or a minimal compact invariant set, not containing equilibria, in an essentially strongly order-preserving semiflow. By appealing to the limit-set dichotomy for essentially strongly order-preserving semiflows, we prove the existence of an orbit connection from an equilibrium to a minimal compact invariant set, not consisting of equilibria. As an application, we establish a new generic convergence principle for essentially strongly order-preserving semiflows with certain compactness conditions.
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