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Burn patients are at high risk of central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). However, the diagnosis of such infections is complex, resource-intensive, and often delayed. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of CLABSI and develop a prediction model for the infection in burn patients. The study analysed the infection profiles, clinical epidemiology, and central venous catheter (CVC) management of patients in a large burn centre in China from January 2018 to December 2021. In total, 222 burn patients with a cumulative 630 CVCs and 5,431 line-days were included. The CLABSI rate was 23.02 CVCs per 1000 line-days. The three most common bacterial species were Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 76.09% of isolates were multidrug resistant. Compared with a non-CLABSI cohort, CLABSI patients were significantly older, with more severe burns, more CVC insertion times, and longer total line-days, as well as higher mortality. Regression analysis found longer line-days, more catheterisation times, and higher burn wounds index to be independent risk factors for CLABSI. A novel nomogram based on three risk factors was constructed with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) value of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.782–0.898) with a mean absolute error of calibration curve of 0.023. The nomogram showed excellent predictive ability and clinical applicability, and provided a simple, practical, and quantitative strategy to predict CLABSI in burn patients.
The present work was performed to analyse the association of dietary patterns with glycaemic control (Hb A1c < 7 %) in a large group of Chinese adults aged between 45 and 59 years.
Habitual dietary intakes in the preceding 12 months were assessed by well-trained interviewers using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis with principal component method was used to obtain the dietary patterns, and the associations between dietary patterns and glycaemic control were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. Poor glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥ 7·0.
Despite decades of research, data on the relationship between dietary patterns and glycaemic control (HbA1c < 7 %) in China are sparse.
A total of 1739 participants aged 45–59 years from Hangzhou were included in the final analysis.
Three dietary patterns were ascertained and labelled as traditional southern Chinese, Western and grains-vegetables patterns. After controlling of the possible confounders, participants in the highest quartile of Western pattern scores had greater OR for HbA1c ≥ 7·0 (OR = 1·05; (95 % CI 1·000, 1·095); P = 0·048) than did those in the lowest quartile. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of grains-vegetables pattern, participants in the highest quartile had lower OR for HbA1c ≥ 7·0 (OR = 0·82; (95 % CI 0·720, 0·949); P = 0·038). Besides, no significant relationship between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and HbA1c ≥ 7·0 was observed (P > 0·05).
This study indicated that the Western pattern was associated with a higher risk, and the grains-vegetables pattern was associated with a lower risk for HbA1c ≥ 7·0. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
NaY zeolite was synthesized from kaolin/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intercalation composites using an in situ crystallization technique. The effects of the intercalation ratios and the amounts of the kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite on the synthesis of an NaY zeolite molecular sieve were studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, N2 adsorption–desorption and scanning electron microscopy. In the in situ synthesis system, when the kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite was added, pure NaY zeolite was formed. By increasing the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added, the crystallinity of the samples increased, and after reaching the maximum amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added, the crystallinity decreased with further increases of the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added. To higher intercalation ratio, the crystallinity can be greatly improved at the lower addition content. At an intercalation ratio of 84%, the added amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite was 2.5% and the crystallinity of the NaY zeolite molecular sieve reached a maximum value of 45%. At intercalation ratios of 55% and 22%, the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added was 15% and the crystallinities of the NaY zeolite molecular sieves were 44% and 47%, respectively. The NaY zeolite has good thermal stability and a particle diameter of ~0.5 μm. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore volume of the sample were 519 m2 g–1 and 0.355 cm3 g–1, respectively.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including obesity, diabetes, and allergy are chronic, multi-factorial conditions that are affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Over the last decade, the microbiome has emerged as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of NCDs. Microbiome profiles were altered in patients with NCDs, and shift in microbial communities was associated with improvement in these health conditions. Since the genetic component of these diseases cannot be altered, the ability to manipulate the microbiome holds great promise for design of novel therapies in the prevention and treatment of NCDs. Together, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept and the microbial hypothesis propose that early life exposure to environmental stimuli will alter the development and composition of the human microbiome, resulting in health consequences. Recent studies indicated that the environment we are exposed to in early life is instrumental in shaping robust immune development, possibly through modulation of the human microbiome (skin, airway, and gut). Despite much research into human microbiome, the origin of their constituent microbiota remains unclear. Dust (also known as particulate matter) is a key determinant of poor air quality in the modern urban environment. It is ubiquitous and serves as a major source and reservoir of microbial communities that modulates the human microbiome, contributing to health and disease. There are evidence that reported significant associations between environmental dust and NCDs. In this review, we will focus on the impact of dust exposure in shaping the human microbiome and its possible contribution to the development of NCDs.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently revealed that a variant of microRNA 137 (MIR137) shows a quite significant association with schizophrenia. Identifying the network of genes regulated by MIR137 could provide insights into the biological processes underlying schizophrenia. In addition, DLPFC functional connectivity, a robust correlate of MIR137, may provide plausible endophenotypes. However, the regulatory role of the MIR137 gene network in the disrupted functional connectivity remains unclear. Here, we tested the effects of the MIR137 regulated genes on the risk for schizophrenia and DLPFC functional connectivity.
To evaluate the additive effects of the MIR137 regulated genes (N = 1274), we calculated a MIR137 polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia and tested its association with the risk for schizophrenia in the genomic data of a Han Chinese population that included schizophrenia patients (N = 589) and normal controls (N = 575). We then investigated the association between MIR137 PRS and DLPFC functional connectivity in two independent young healthy cohorts (N = 356 and N = 314).
We found that the MIR137 PRS successfully captured the differences in genetic structure between the patients and controls, but the single gene MIR137 did not. We then consistently found that a higher MIR137 PRS was correlated with lower functional connectivities between the DLPFC and both the superior parietal cortex and the inferior temporal cortex in two independent cohorts.
The findings suggested that these two functional connectivities of the DLPFC could be important endophenotypes linking the MIR137-regulated genetic structure to schizophrenia.
Sulphur reduction catalysts represent a viable option for S reduction in the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. In this paper, a kaolin in situ crystallization catalyst was modified with vanadium and evaluated in a fixed fluid bed (FFB) reactor. The relation between the acidity of the catalyst, the S reduction rate and the catalyst activity is discussed. The results show that increasing weak Lewis acid acidity favours S reduction in the FCC process. Increasing the V content enhances the weak Lewis acidity, so causing the S reduction rate to increase. The kaolin in situ crystallization catalyst modified with 0.6 wt.% of V leads to a 34.5% reduction in the S content of the liquid product. Comprehensive evaluation of the FFB results and the S reduction ability indicates that the catalyst modified with 0.45 wt.% V provided the best performance.
The effects of acid and Al concentration, type of Al salt, treatment temperature and time of removal of Mg from sepiolite have been investigated, as has the use of modified sepiolite as an active fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) matrix. The samples were characterized by N2 adsorption and X-ray diffraction. Mg removal from sepiolite increased with increasing acid and Al ion concentration, treatment time and temperature. The temperature had the greatest impact on Mg removal. After acid and Al modification, 29% of the Mg was removed. When using the modified sepiolites as active matrices in FCC catalysts, the specific surface area, pore volume and mesoporous pore volume of the catalysts increased and they exhibited excellent performance in resisting the effects of heavy-metals as a result of the introduction of Mg oxide from the modified sepiolite.
The performance of a fluidized cracking catalyst additive prepared from caustic-modified kaolin microspheres for gasoline S reduction was investigated using N2 adsorption, infrared acid-site characterization, X-ray diffraction and small-scale fluid bed reactor tests. The additive exhibited improved coke selectivity and yield distribution, and the S content of cracked gasoline was reduced significantly. The results indicated that a reactive mesoporous structure was formed in the modified kaolin.
The chemical and mineralogical compositions, the pore-diameter distribution, and the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy of kaolin from Suzhou, China, and the physicochemical and catalytic properties of a catalyst prepared from that kaolin, are presented in this paper. Crystallized microspheres (CMR) containing ~30% NaY zeolite can be prepared from the Suzhou kaolin. The catalyst produced performs better than a standard commercial catalyst in terms of activity, attrition resistance, resistance to passivation by Ni and V and better gasoline and coke selectivity.
In this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, we aimed to estimate the associations between prenatal vitamin D status and offspring growth, adiposity and metabolic health. We searched the literature in human studies on prenatal vitamin D status and offspring growth in PubMed, up to July 2017. Studies were selected according to their methodological quality and outcomes of interest (anthropometry, fat mass and diabetes in offspring). The inverse variance method was used to calculate the pooled mean difference (MD) with 95 % CI for continuous outcomes, and the Mantel–Haenszel method was used to calculate the pooled OR with 95 % CI for dichotomous outcomes. In all, thirty observational studies involving 35 032 mother–offspring pairs were included. Vitamin D status was evaluated by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Low vitamin D status was based on each study’s cut-off for low 25(OH)D levels. Low prenatal vitamin D levels were associated with lower birth weight (g) (MD −100·69; 95 % CI −162·25, −39·13), increased risk of small-for-gestational-age (OR 1·55; 95 % CI 1·16, 2·07) and an elevated weight (g) in infant at the age of 9 months (g) (MD 119·75; 95 % CI 32·97, 206·52). No associations were observed between prenatal vitamin D status and other growth parameters at birth, age 1 year, 4–6 years or 9 years, nor with diabetes type 1. Prenatal vitamin D may play a role in infant adiposity and accelerated postnatal growth. The effects of prenatal vitamin D on long-term metabolic health outcomes in children warrant future studies.
Novel composite materials with wide pores were synthesized by an in situ technique using kaolin, palygorskite and pseudoboehmite as raw materials. The characterization results indicated that the synthesis components and conditions influenced the micro-, meso- and macro-porosity of the composite materials. The composites contained 53.5% zeolite Y and had much larger specific surface areas and pore volumes as well as significant hydrothermal stability. Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts were prepared based on the composite materials. The results indicated that the as-prepared catalysts possessed a unique pore structure which assisted in diffusion-controlled reactions. In addition, the attrition resistance, activity and hydrothermal stability of the catalyst studied were superior to those of a reference catalyst. The catalyst studied also exhibited excellent nickel and vanadium passivation performance, strong ‘bottoms upgrading’ selectivity and better gasoline and coke selectivity.
Dietary fibre has been linked to lower levels of glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among diabetes patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of dietary fibre on HbA1c levels among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2011, with the second one being a repeat survey on a sub-sample from the initial one. In both surveys, an in-person interview was conducted to collect information on demographic characteristics and lifestyles following a similar protocol. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Anthropometric measures and biochemical assays were performed at the interview.
Communities in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China.
Chinese patients (n 934) with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
An inverse association was observed between dietary fibre and glycaemic status indicated by HbA1c level in both surveys, although it was significant only in the first survey. Among 497 patients participating in both surveys, dietary fibre intake at the first survey was inversely associated with uncontrolled glycaemic status at the second survey, with adjusted odds ratios across the tertiles of intake being 1·00, 0·72 (95 % CI 0·43, 1·21) and 0·58 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·99; Ptrend = 0·048). The change in fibre intake was slightly associated with glycaemic status, with each increase in tertile scores of intake linked to a 0·138 % (β = −0·138; 95 % CI −0·002, 0·278) decrease in HbA1c value and a 19 % (OR = 0·81; 95 % CI 0·65, 1·02) reduced risk of uncontrolled glycaemic status at the second survey.
Dietary fibre may have a long-term beneficial effect on HbA1c level among Chinese diabetes patients.
A joint diagnostic system was established for the diagnosis of laser-driven shock wave experiments. The system has high temporal resolution (time resolution ~12 ps) and high spatial resolution (spatial resolution ~7 μm) and fits for diagnostics of the experiment with small sample size and short time physical process. The joint diagnostic system was applied for shock wave measurement on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The passive shock breakout signal and active diagnostic signal were simultaneously obtained. The temporal measurement reliability of the system was verified using a multi-layered target. The experimental results show that the two measurement results were consistent.
The intensity of pupal diapause in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was investigated under both laboratory and natural conditions. By transferring diapausing pupae induced under LD 11:13, LD 12:12 and LD 13:11 at 20, 22 and 25 °C to 25 °C combined with LD 15:9 to terminate diapause the rearing day length of 11 h evoked greater intensity of diapause than did 12 and 13 h at 25 °C; whereas the rearing temperature of 25 °C evoked more intense diapause than did 20 and 22 °C under LD 11:13. By transferring diapausing pupae induced under LD 12:12 at 20 and 22 °C to six temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C combined with LD 15:9 to terminate diapause, the duration of diapause was significantly shortened from 146 days at 18 °C to 24 days at 31 °C, showing that high temperatures significantly accelerate diapause development. Furthermore, the duration of diapause was significantly longer at the rearing temperature of 22 °C than that at 20 °C when the diapause-terminating temperatures were 20 and 22 °C. Chilling at 5 °C did not shorten the duration of diapause but lengthened it when chilling period was included. However, chilling plays an important role in synchronizing adult emergence. Rearing temperature of 22 °C also evoked more intense diapause than did 20 °C in most chilling treatments. When the overwintering pupae were transferred at different times from natural temperatures to 25 °C, it was found that the earlier the transfer took place, the earlier the adults emerged when the time spent under natural conditions was included. However, cool temperatures before March showed an enhanced effect on diapause development at 20 °C, suggesting that the high diapause-terminating temperature can offset the effect of chilling on diapause development. The result of diapause termination under natural conditions suggests that the developmental threshold for post-diapause development in H. armigera should be around 17.5 °C.
The authors investigated the effects of annealing in Ar atmosphere at different temperatures (350–1100 °C) on the densification and leakage current characteristics of thermally oxidized SiO2 films on n-type 4H-SiC. A strong correlation between densification improvement and leakage current reduction was observed. Densification of the SiO2 films, which were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry, Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, can be significantly improved after annealing at moderate temperature (600 °C). The leakage current is decreased by two orders of magnitude of the SiO2 thin film after annealing at 600 °C. Based on the studies, SiO2 film of the highest quality can be obtained after annealing at 600 °C. Improvements in the quality of the SiO2 thin films after annealing at 600 °C may be explained by the consumption and formation of carbon-related and oxygen-related defects during annealing.
The cryptic species Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly referred to as ‘B biotype’, of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex entered China in the mid 1990s, and the Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species, formerly referred to as ‘Q biotype’, of the same whitefly complex entered China around 2003. Field surveys in China after 2003 indicate that in many regions MED has been replacing the earlier invader MEAM1. The factors underlying this displacement are unclear. We conducted laboratory experiments and field sampling to examine the effects of insecticide application on the competitive interactions between MEAM1 and MED. In the laboratory, on cotton, a plant showing similar levels of suitability to both whitefly species, MEAM1 displaced MED in five generations when initial populations of the two species were equal and no insecticide was applied. In contrast, MED displaced MEAM1 in seven and two generations, respectively, when 12.5 and 50.0 mg l−1 imidacloprid was applied to the plants via soil drench. Field sampling indicated that in a single season MED displaced MEAM1 on crops heavily sprayed with neonicotinoid insecticides but the relative abundance of the two species changed little on crops without insecticide spray. We also examined the effects of host plants on the competitive interactions between the two species in the laboratory. When cohorts with equal abundance of MEAM1 and MED were set up on different host plants, MEAM1 displaced MED on cabbage and tomato in five and seven generations, respectively, but MED displaced MEAM1 on pepper in two generations. As field populations of MED have lower susceptibility than those of MEAM1 to nearly all commonly used insecticides including imidacloprid, insecticide application seems to have played a major role in shifting the species competitive interaction effects in favour of MED in the field across China. Host plants may also shape competition between the two species depending on the relative levels of plant suitability.
An anisotropic solution adaptive method based on unstructured quadrilateral meshes for inviscid compressible flows is proposed. The data structure, the directional refinement and coarsening, including the method for initializing the refined new cells, for the anisotropic adaptive method are described. It provides efficient high resolution of flow features, which are aligned with the original quadrilateral mesh structures. Five different cases are provided to show that it could be used to resolve the anisotropic flow features and be applied to model the complex geometry as well as to keep a relative high order of accuracy on an efficient anisotropic mesh.
The indica rice Xieqingzao eB1 (XQZ eB1), a mutant with an elongated uppermost internode, was produced by mutagenesis from elite maintainer line Xieqingzao B (XQZ B) using γ-radiation. Compared with the wild-type XQZ B, plant height and the length of the rice panicle neck, second internode and third internode from the panicle were elongated significantly in XQZ eB1. Genetic analysis indicated that the trait for uppermost internode elongation of XQZ eB1 is controlled by a single recessive gene eui1, which is allelic to that of IR50eui (derived from 76:4512). Further studies were carried out using the bulk segregated analysis approach. An F3 population, derived from the cross XQZ eB1×Aijiaonante, was used to map the mutant gene eui1. Two SSR makers, RM164 and AC9, were identified to link to eui1, their genetic distances to eui1 being 18.4 and 7.9 cM, respectively. The eui1 gene was also mapped to the long arm of chromosome 5 in this research.
Plasma ion implantation (PII) doping processes utilizing PH3/He and B2H6/He plasmas to fabricate CMOS devices are presented. The impact of plasma chemistry of PH on device structure and characteristics are studied. By using an optimized process condition, low contamination levels and good device characteristics have been achieved.
Plasma ion implantation (PII) doping technique has been utilized to prepare a new lowdielectric constant (low k) material SiO(F,C). Fluorine and carbon were implanted into SiO2 films by CF4 PII using an ICP plasma reactor. The effective dielectric constant of the films was significantly reduced after PH doping. An analysis of a double layer model indicated that a high quality dielectric layer with a dielectric constant down to 2.8 can be achieved by an optimized PII process. Contrasting to other conventional low-k material techniques, PII process also improved bulk resistivity and electrical field breakdown strength. The improvement possibly resulted from adding carbon into the films. The etching effect of CF4 PII could be beneficial to planarization and gap filling of dielectric interlayer.