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Four of China’s six wintering populations of “grey” geese Anser spp. declined during the last decade. In contrast, the Bar-headed Goose A. indicus wintering population in China’s Tibet Autonomous Region more than doubled. During six surveys in Tibet over a 27-year period (1991/92 to 2017/18 winters) we documented an annual growth rate of 6.8% in the Bar-headed Goose population – an increase from approximately 10,100 to 68,100 birds. We propose that in addition to the cessation of hunting, the population growth of Bar-headed Goose is being driven by changes in agricultural land use patterns in Tibet, the establishment of protected areas on the wintering and breeding grounds, and the impacts of climate change across the Tibetan Plateau. Consistent with this hypothesis, the sown area of winter wheat in Tibet has increased and geese have shifted from primarily feeding in crop stubble to planted winter wheat fields. We also found that the most rapid population growth coincided with a 1998 climate regime shift across the Tibetan Plateau resulting in warmer temperatures, an increase in net precipitation, the appearance of new lakes and changes in the water levels and surface area of historical lakes. We suggest that warmer temperatures and high-quality forage on the south-central Tibet wintering grounds may be enhancing over-winter survival, while on the breeding grounds the expansion of lakes and wet meadows is augmenting breeding and brood-rearing habitat.
The interplay between sustainability and anthropogenic landscape transformation is crucial to understanding the past decline and eradication of wild animals. The Bronze Age site of Zaoshugounao is located in the Guanzhong region of China, an area critical in the formation and development of early Chinese civilisation. Drawing upon zooarchaeological, palaeoenvironmental and textual evidence, analysis of sika deer remains from Zaoshugounao reveals sustainable sika deer-hunting strategies at the site, despite an overall long-term trend in the sika deer population decline and habitat loss. The authors’ results highlight the complexity and diversity of human-sika relations and contribute to ongoing discussions surrounding wild animal eradication and conservation in China.
Barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.] is a noxious grass weed that infests rice fields and causes huge crop yield losses. In this study, we collected 12 E. crus-galli populations from rice ﬁelds of Ningxia Province in China and investigated the resistance levels to the acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor penoxsulam and the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor cyhalofop-butyl. The results showed that eight populations exhibited resistance to penoxsulam and four populations evolved resistance to cyhalofop-butyl. Moreover, all four cyhalofop-butyl–resistant populations (NX3, NX4, NX6, and NX7) displayed multiple herbicide resistance to both penoxsulam and cyhalofop-butyl. The alternative herbicides bispyribac-sodium, metamifop, and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl cannot effectively control the multiple herbicide–resistant (MHR) plants. To characterize the molecular mechanisms of resistance, we ampliﬁed and sequenced the target site–encoding genes in resistant and susceptible populations. Partial sequences of three ALS genes and six ACCase genes were examined. A Trp-574-Leu mutation was detected in EcALS1 and EcALS3 in two high-level (65.84- and 59.30-fold) penoxsulam-resistant populations, NX2 and NX10, respectively. In addition, one copy (EcACC4) of ACCase genes encodes a truncated aberrant protein due to a frameshift mutation in E. crus-galli populations. None of the amino acid substitutions that are known to confer herbicide resistance were detected in ALS and ACCase genes of MHR populations. Our study reveals the wide spread of MHR E. crus-galli populations in Ningxia Province that exhibit resistance to several ALS and ACCase inhibitors. Non–target site based mechanisms are likely to be involved in E. crus-galli resistance to the herbicides, at least in four MHR populations.
This study investigates the validity of syntactic priming as a measure of implicit language aptitude. Syntactic priming refers to the tendency to reproduce a linguistic structure due to a previous exposure to the structure. The validity of the construct was verified by collating evidence for divergent validity—whether it is dissociable from explicit aptitude; convergent validity—whether it is correlated with other measures of implicit aptitude; and predictive validity—whether it is predictive of learning attainment. One hundred sixty-six university EFL learners completed three tests of implicit aptitude: syntactic priming, sequence learning, and LLAMA_D; three tests of explicit aptitude: LLAMA_B, _E, and _F; and three tests of L2 proficiency: untimed grammaticality judgment, metalinguistic knowledge, and elicited imitation. The results showed that syntactic priming was dissociable from explicit aptitude, but it failed to converge with the other measures of implicit aptitude, and it also failed to predict L2 proficiency. The results also showed that priming was negatively correlated with sequence learning and that sequence learning was a negative predictor of learners’ metalinguistic knowledge. On the other hand, the construct validity of explicit aptitude was strong. The results suggest the multidimensionality of implicit aptitude and the need for more research into the construct validity of syntactic priming as a cognitive ability for implicit learning.
Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) is a dominant weed in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields in Heilongjiang Province, China. High selective pressure caused by the extensive application of the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicide fomesafen has caused A. retroflexus to evolve resistance to this herbicide. Two susceptible and two resistant populations (S1, S2, R1, and R2) were selected in this study to illustrate the target-site resistance mechanism in resistant A. retroflexus. Whole-plant bioassays indicated that R1 and R2 had evolved high-level resistance to fomesafen, with resistance factors of 27.0 to 27.9. Sequence alignment of the PPO gene showed an Arg-128-Gly substitution in PPX2. The basal expression differences of PPX1 and PPX2 between the S1 and R1 plants were essentially nonsignificant, whereas the basal expression of PPX2 in R2 plants was slightly lower than in S1 plants. Compared with the PPX1 gene, the PPX2 gene maintained higher expression in the resistant plants after treatment with fomesafen. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed a similar basal PPO content between the susceptible and resistant plants without treatment. After fomesafen treatment, the PPO content decreased sharply in the susceptible plants compared with the resistant plants. Furthermore, after 24 h of treatment, the resistant plants showed increased PPO content, whereas the susceptible plants had died. The PPO2 mutation resulted in high extractable PPO activity and low sensitivity to fomesafen along with changes in PPO enzyme kinetics. Although the mutant PPO2 exhibited increased Km values in the resistant plants, the Vmax values in these plants were also increased. Changes in the properties of the PPO enzyme due to an Arg-128-Gly substitution in PPX2, including changes in enzyme sensitivity and enzyme kinetics, are the target-site mechanism of resistance in A. retroflexus.
The objective of this study was to analyze differences in birth weight and overweight/obesity in a Shanghai twin cohort. We also wanted to study their association and explore possible risk factors for the discordance of overweight/obesity within twins. This was an internal case–control study designed for twins. The 2012 Shanghai Twin Registration System baseline survey data of a total of 3417 twin pairs were statistically analyzed using SPSS22 software. Results show that the body mass index (BMI) of the Shanghai twin population increased with age. Twins with a high birth weight had a higher BMI and a higher rate of overweight and obesity; 0- to 6-year-old twins, male twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins had higher rates of overweight/obesity than other groups. The greater the discordant birth weight rate of twins, the more obvious the difference in BMI (p < .05). There was a significant difference in overweight/obesity between twins with a relative difference of birth weight ≥15% in DZ twins (p < .05). DZ twins, male twins and 0- to 6-year-old twins were more likely to be discordant in overweight/obese than others. The discordant birth weight within twins was not a risk factor for discordant overweight/obesity. However, attention should be paid to childhood obesity, and appropriate interventions should be made at the appropriate time. Genetics may play an important role in the occurrence and development of overweight/obesity. In conclusion, discordant growth and development in the uterus early in life may not lead to discordant weight development in the future.
A multicenter study of sharps injuries (SIs) and other blood or body fluid (OBBF) exposures was conducted among 33,156 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 175 hospitals in Anhui, China. In total, 12,178 HCWs (36.7%) had experienced at least 1 SI in the previous 12 months and 8,116 HCWs (24.5%) had experienced at least 1 OBBF exposure during the previous 12 months.
Inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the development and progression of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary inflammatory index (DII), a measurement of inflammatory potential in diets, was suggested to be associated with MetS. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the associations of DII with MetS and its components based on available observational studies.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
A comprehensive literature search of studies that assessed the associations between DII and MetS was conducted in PubMed, Medline and Embase, using a combination of search terms relating to DII and MetS.
Eighteen articles were eligible, of which fourteen were cross-sectional and four were cohort in design.
Results from the random effects meta-analysis showed significantly positive associations of higher DII (top v. bottom quartiles) with MetS (OR: 1·23 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·37)), abdominal obesity (OR: 1·15 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·29)), high blood pressure (OR: 1·17 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·29)), hyperglycaemia (OR: 1·18 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·33)) and hypertriacylglycerolaemia (OR: 1·17 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·28)). The effects of summary OR became stronger when analyses were restricted to cohorts, studies that adjudged for covariates (including BMI, physical activity and total energy intake).
Higher DII, representing pro-inflammatory diet, is associated with higher odds of MetS and its components, except for low HDL-cholesterol. The findings prompt dietary interventions for preventing MetS from the aspect of inflammation.
The high overall plant-based diet index (PDI) is considered to protect against type 2 diabetes in the general population. However, whether the PDI affects gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk among pregnant women is still unclear. We evaluated the association between PDI and GDM risk based on a Chinese large prospective cohort – the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary data were collected at 13–28 weeks of pregnancy by a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The PDI was obtained by assigning plant food groups positive scores while assigning animal food groups reverse scores. GDM was diagnosed by a 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate OR of GDM, with associated 95 % CI, comparing women in different PDI quartiles. Among the total 2099 participants, 169 (8·1 %) were diagnosed with GDM. The PDI ranged from 21·0 to 52·0 with a median of 36·0 (interquartile range (IQR) 33·0–39·0). After adjusting for social-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors etc., the participants with the highest quartile of PDI were associated with 57 % reduced odds of GDM compared with women in the lowest quartile of PDI (adjusted OR 0·43; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·77; Pfor trend = 0·005). An IQR increment in PDI was associated with 29 % decreased odds of GDM (adjusted OR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·90). Findings suggest that adopting a plant-based diet during pregnancy could reduce GDM risk among Chinese women, which may be valuable for dietary counselling during pregnancy.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
The use of a corn–earthworm coculture (CE) system is an eco-agricultural technology that has been gradually extended due to its high economic output and diverse ecological benefits for urban agriculture in China. However, the effect of CE on weed occurrence has received little attention. A 5-yr successive experiment (2015 to 2019) was conducted to compare weed occurrence in CE and a corn (Zea mays L.) monoculture (CM). The results show that CE significantly decreased weed diversity, the dominance index, total weed density, and biomass, but increased the weed evenness index. The 5-yr mean number of weed species per plot was 8.4 in CE and 10.7 in CM. Compared with those in CM, the 5-yr mean density and biomass of total weeds in CE decreased by 59.2% and 66.6%, respectively. The effect of CE on weed occurrence was species specific. The mean density of large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.], green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.], goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.], and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) in CE decreased by 94.5%, 78.1%, 75.0%, and 45.8%, whereas the mean biomass decreased by 96.2%, 80.8%, 76.9%, and 41.4%, respectively. Our study suggests that the use of CE could suppress weed occurrence and reduce herbicide inputs in agriculture.
To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with breast cancer (BC) risk in Chinese women.
Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify generic dietary patterns based on daily food-frequency data.
The Chinese Wuxi Exposure and Breast Cancer Study (2013–2014).
A population-based case–control study (695 cases, 804 controls).
Four dietary patterns were identified, Prudent, Chinese traditional, Western and Picky; the proportion in the controls and cases was 0·30/0·32/0·16/0·23 and 0·29/0·26/0·11/0·33, respectively. Women in Picky class were characterised by higher extreme probabilities of non-consumption of specific foods, the highest probabilities of consumption of pickled foods and the lowest probabilities of consumption of cereals, soya foods and nuts. Compared with Prudent class, Picky class was associated with a higher risk (OR = 1·42, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·90), while the relevant association was only in post- (OR = 1·44, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·05) but not in premenopausal women. The Western class characterised by high-protein, high-fat and high-sugar foods, and the Chinese traditional class characterised by typical consumption of soya foods and white meat over red meat, both of them showed no difference in BC risk compared with Prudent class did.
LCA captures the heterogeneity of individuals embedded in the population and could be a useful approach in the study of dietary pattern and disease. Our results indicated that the Picky class might have a positive association with the risk of BC.
The orientation between twin boundary (TB) and loading direction may play an intriguing role in the deformation behaviors of twinned metallic materials. In this aspect, its essential effect on the high-entropy alloy (HEA) nanocrystals is elusive. Attention herein is focused on the atomic-scaled deformation mechanisms and fracture behaviors of HEA nanocrystals containing twins of even smaller spacings via a combined approach of in situ tensile tests inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that the deformation mechanisms (especially dislocation activities) of HEA nanocrystals depend on the load orientation with respect to TBs. Because of the low activation energy and uneven local composition of HEA, the surface acts as an effective dislocation source and, together with Schmid factor, dominate the activated dislocation slip system. The load orientation-dependent TB-dislocation interactions may transform the type of fracture from semi-brittle to ductile. Our results indicate that the deformation mechanisms and the types of fracture in HEA nanocrystals can be controlled by changing the orientation.
Precise instrumental calibration is of crucial importance to 21-cm cosmology experiments. The Murchison Widefield Array’s (MWA) Phase II compact configuration offers us opportunities for both redundant calibration and sky-based calibration algorithms; using the two in tandem is a potential approach to mitigate calibration errors caused by inaccurate sky models. The MWA Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiment targets three patches of the sky (dubbed EoR0, EoR1, and EoR2) with deep observations. Previous work in Li et al. (2018) and (2019) studied the effect of tandem calibration on the EoR0 field and found that it yielded no significant improvement in the power spectrum (PS) over sky-based calibration alone. In this work, we apply similar techniques to the EoR1 field and find a distinct result: the improvements in the PS from tandem calibration are significant. To understand this result, we analyse both the calibration solutions themselves and the effects on the PS over three nights of EoR1 observations. We conclude that the presence of the bright radio galaxy Fornax A in EoR1 degrades the performance of sky-based calibration, which in turn enables redundant calibration to have a larger impact. These results suggest that redundant calibration can indeed mitigate some level of model incompleteness error.
Few studies have assessed the characteristics of spousal psychopathologies among parents of schoolchildren with and without psychological disorders (PD) in China.
Parental symptoms were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) in 275 mothers and 278 fathers of 298 schoolchildren with PDs diagnosed in a population survey and in 825 mothers and 834 fathers of 894 schoolchildren without PDs as a 1:3 matched comparison group. Spousal GHQ scores were compared. Childhood PD type, presence of childhood comorbidities, and multiple parental and family characteristics were examined as predictors for parental GHQ scores by multiple linear regression analyses.
The GHQ scores were significantly higher among mothers and fathers of children with any PD. Maternal GHQ scores were higher than paternal scores and significantly correlated with paternal GHQ scores in both groups. Spousal GHQ, personal PD history, and childhood PD comorbidity were significant independent predictors of both parents’ GHQ scores. There were also significant associations among parental chronic disease, low family income, and paternal and maternal GHQ score, as well as among low maternal education, less common disorder (LCD) prevalence in children and maternal GHQ score. The rate of GHQ score ≥3 for both parents was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (15.1 vs.7.0%).
Parents of children with any PD type demonstrate significantly elevated psychopathologies, and psychopathology tends to occur concomitantly and resemble that of the other spouse. Screening and treatment of parental psychiatric symptoms will benefit all family members.
Few studies have suggested that long-term adherence to low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) may affect maternal glucose metabolism in Western countries. We aimed to investigate the association between LCD during pregnancy and glucose metabolism in a Chinese population. A total of 1018 women in mid-pregnancy were recruited in 2017–2018. Participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Daily dietary intakes over the past month were accessed using a validated FFQ. The overall, animal and vegetable LCD scores which represent adherence to different low-carbohydrate dietary patterns were calculated. Mixed linear regression and generalised linear mixed regression were conducted to evaluate the associations between LCD scores and maternal glucose metabolism. Of the 1018 subjects, 194 (19·1 %) were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The overall LCD score (β: 0·024, se 0·008, PFDR = 0·02) and animal LCD score (β: 0·023, se 0·008, PFDR = 0·02) were positively associated with OGTT 1-h glucose. No significant associations were found between the three different LCD scores with fasting plasma glucose, OGTT 2-h glucose, or insulin resistance, respectively. Compared with the lowest quartile, the crude OR of GDM for the highest quartile were 1·84 (95 % CI 1·14, 2·95) for overall LCD score (Pfor trend = 0·02) and 1·56 (95 % CI 1·00, 2·45) for animal LCD score (Pfor trend = 0·02). However, these associations became non-significant after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high animal protein and fat is associated with higher postprandial 1-h glucose levels in Chinese pregnant women.
A recently developed pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has quickly spread across the world. Unfortunately, a simplified risk score that could easily be used in primary care or general practice settings has not been developed. The objective of this study is to identify a simplified risk score that could easily be used to quickly triage severe COVID-19 patients. All severe and critical adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 on the West campus of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, from 28 January 2020 to 29 February 2020 were included in this study. Clinical data and laboratory results were obtained. CURB-65 pneumonia score was calculated. Univariate logistic regressions were applied to explore risk factors associated with in-hospital death. We used the receiver operating characteristic curve and multivariate COX-PH model to analyse risk factors for in-hospital death. A total of 74 patients (31 died, 43 survived) were finally included in the study. We observed that compared with survivors, non-survivors were older and illustrated higher respiratory rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but lower SpO2 as well as impaired liver function, especially synthesis function. CURB-65 showed good performance for predicting in-hospital death (area under curve 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71–0.91). CURB-65 ⩾ 2 may serve as a cut-off value for prediction of in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19 (sensitivity 68%, specificity 81%, F1 score 0.7). CURB-65 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.61; 95% CI 1.05–2.46), LDH (HR 1.003; 95% CI 1.001–1.004) and albumin (HR 0.9; 95% CI 0.81–1) were risk factors for in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19. Our study indicates CURB-65 may serve as a useful prognostic marker in COVID-19 patients, which could be used to quickly triage severe patients in primary care or general practice settings.
The soil weed seedbank is the source of future weed infestations. Seed predation can result in a large number of seed losses, thus contributing to weed biocontrol. Earthworms are important predators of seeds and seedlings and affect seeds and seedling survival after gut passage. A study was conducted to assess the ability of Pheretima guillelmi (Kinberg) to ingest and digest the seeds and seedlings of 15 main farmland weed species. Pheretima guillelmi ingested the seeds and seedlings of each weed species tested. The percentages of seeds and seedlings ingested were 96.7% to 100% and 21.7% to 94.2%, respectively. Pheretima guillelmi showed greater ingestion of seeds than seedlings for each species and digested the seeds and seedlings of each weed species tested to varying extents. The percentages of seeds and seedlings digested were less than 15% irrespective of the weed species. Passage through the gut of P. guillelmi affected the survival of seeds and seedlings. The germination of large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.], green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.], goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.], Chinese sprangletop [Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees], Malabar sprangletop [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth], redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.], and ricefield flatsedge (Cyperus iria L.) seeds egested by P. guillelmi decreased by 46%, 49%, 47%, 25%, 38%, 26%, 32%, 13%, and 15%, respectively, compared with their respective controls. In contrast to seed ingestion, ingestion of seedlings by P. guillelmi was fatal to individuals of all weed species; no seedlings survived passage through the gut. Our results indicate that predation of weed seeds and seedlings by P. guillelmi probably depletes the soil weed seedbank and that the introduction of P. guillelmi into fields is a potential strategy for weed biocontrol in farmland.
In the present study, we use direct numerical simulation to investigate the density-driven convection in a two-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous porous media associated with significant laminated formation. At first, the heterogeneous porous media are randomly generated to represent laminated structure, in which the horizontal correlation length of permeability field is much longer than the vertical counterpart. Then, a highly accurate pseudo-spectral method and compact finite difference scheme with higher order of accuracy are employed to numerically reproduce the convection flow in the laminated porous media. The results show that the laminated structures restrict interactions among the downward plumes of heavier fluid. The plumes tend to descend more straightly in a laminated porous medium associated with a slower growth rate. As a result, the laminated distribution of permeability is considered having an inhibiting effect on the convection flow.