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This article aims to analyze the relationship between user characteristics on social networks and influenza.
Three specific research questions are investigated: (1) we classify Weibo updates to recognize influenza-related information based on machine learning algorithms and propose a quantitative model for influenza susceptibility in social networks; (2) we adopt in-degree indicator from complex networks theory as social media status to verify its coefficient correlation with influenza susceptibility; (3) we also apply the LDA topic model to explore users’ physical condition from Weibo to further calculate its coefficient correlation with influenza susceptibility. From the perspective of social networking status, we analyze and extract influenza-related information from social media, with many advantages including efficiency, low cost, and real time.
We find a moderate negative correlation between the susceptibility of users to influenza and social network status, while there is a significant positive correlation between physical condition and susceptibility to influenza.
Our findings reveal the laws behind the phenomenon of online disease transmission, and providing important evidence for analyzing, predicting, and preventing disease transmission. Also, this study provides theoretical and methodological underpinnings for further exploration and measurement of more factors associated with infection control and public health from social networks.
For a perturbed generalized Korteweg–de Vries equation with a distributed delay, we prove the existence of both periodic and solitary waves by using the geometric singular perturbation theory and the Melnikov method. We further obtain monotonicity and boundedness of the speed of the periodic wave with respect to the total energy of the unperturbed system. Finally, we establish a relation between the wave speed and the wavelength.
While previous research has identified the performance implications of leaders’ positive implicit followership theories (IFTs, i.e., personal expectations regarding followers’ positive characteristics), this study focuses on the effect of leader–follower congruence in positive IFTs on followers’ job performance. To test our predictions, we conducted two complementary studies. The results of Study 1 (an experiment, N = 200) show that leader–follower congruence (versus incongruence) in positive IFTs is positively related to followers’ relational identification with the leader, which, in turn, is positively related to followers’ job performance. Moreover, followers’ uncertainty avoidance strengthens this relationship. These findings were replicated in Study 2 (a three-wave survey, N = 223) through polynomial regression and response surface analysis. This study improves our understanding of IFTs by showing that leader–follower congruence in this domain is related to followers’ outcomes.
Findings from observational studies have suggested a possible association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia (PE). However, the results of these studies were inconclusive. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to illuminate this association. Systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus and other databases from inception until January 2023. The qualities of included studies were assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Nine studies (seven cohort, two case–control) were included in the meta-analysis, including 11 423 participants from five different countries. The meta-analysis indicated that a 1-unit increase in the DII score, representing pro-inflammatory diet, was associated with 13 % higher risk of GDM (OR = 1·13; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·25, I2 = 68·4 %, P = 0·004) and 24 % higher risk of PE (OR = 1·24; 95 % CI 1·14, 1·35, I2 = 52·0 %, P = 0·125). Subgroup analysis found that this association was evident among studies with Chinese populations (OR = 1·16; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·28) and studies with mid pregnancy (OR = 1·20; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·34). The findings indicate that pro-inflammatory diet can increase the risk of GDM and PE. Considering some limitations in this study, more studies are needed to verify this association.
Compared with nitrogen and argon, helium is lighter and can better reduce the beam loss caused by angular scattering during beam transmission. The molecular dissociation cross-section in helium is high and stable at low energies, which makes helium the prevalent stripping gas in low-energy accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To study the stripping behavior of 14C ions in helium at low energies, the charge state distributions of carbon ion beams with −1, +1, +2, +3, and +4 charge states were measured at energies of 70–220 keV with a compact 14C-AMS at Guangxi Normal University (GXNU). The experimental data were used to analyze the stripping characteristics of C-He in the energy range of 70–220 keV, and new charge state yields and exchange cross-sections in C-He were obtained at energies of 70–220 keV.
The relationship between erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA and breast cancer risk is controversial. We aimed to examine the associations of erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA with odds of breast cancer among Chinese women by using a relatively large sample size. A case–control study was conducted including 853 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer cases and 892 frequency-matched controls (5-year interval). Erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA were measured by GC. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline were used to quantify the association between erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA and odds of breast cancer. Erythrocyte membrane α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and total n-3 PUFA were inversely and non-linearly associated with odds of breast cancer. The OR values (95 % CI), comparing the highest with the lowest quartile (Q), were 0·57 (0·43, 0·76), 0·43 (0·32, 0·58) and 0·36 (0·27, 0·49) for ALA, DPA and total n-3 PUFA, respectively. Erythrocyte membrane EPA and DHA were linearly and inversely associated with odds of breast cancer ((EPA: ORQ4 v. Q1 (95 % CI) = 0·59 (0·45, 0·79); DHA: ORQ4 v. Q1 (95 % CI) = 0·50 (0·37, 0·67)). The inverse associations were observed between ALA and odds of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and between DHA and oestrogen receptor+ breast cancer. This study showed that erythrocyte membrane total and individual n-3 PUFA were inversely associated with odds of breast cancer. Other factors, such as menopause and hormone receptor status, may warrant further investigation when examining the association between n-3 PUFA and odds of breast cancer.
Four species of Porpidia are newly reported from China, including one species new to science (Porpidia crystallina) and three records (Porpidia umbonifera, P. seakensis and P. cf. contraponenda) new to China. Porpidia crystallina is characterized by a macrocarpa-type exciple containing crystals, a Cinereorufa-green epihymenium, large ascospores and a lack of secondary metabolites. Morpho-anatomical, chemical and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to elucidate the placement of the species and to support the delimitation of the new taxon. Detailed taxonomic descriptions, ecological and chemical characters, and illustrations are provided for each species. A key to all known Chinese Porpidia species is also provided.
Overparenting has been considered to contribute to offspring internalizing mental disorders from theoretical perspectives, which some empirical evidence has supported. However, existing findings are inconsistent. To facilitate the understanding of the association between overparenting and depression, anxiety, and internalizing symptoms, an examination of effect sizes is required. By employing the PRISMA method, a meta-analysis was conducted. Fifty-two articles were identified, with 38 studies examining depression, 30 studies examining anxiety, and 21 studies examining internalizing symptoms. The results show that overparenting is associated with offspring depression (mean age 19.94 years) (k = 133, r = .15, p < .001), anxiety (mean age 19.57 years) (k = 101, r = .14, p < .001), and internalizing symptoms (mean age 19.76 years) (k = 58, r = .19, p < .001). Moderator analyses show that the effect sizes are largely equal across SES groups, cultures, the age of offspring, child gender, and study design but may vary depending on the parental gender and report informants. Implications for interventions and future directions are discussed.
A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (GXNU-AMS) developed for radiocarbon and tritium measurements was installed and commissioned at Guangxi Normal University in 2017. After several years of operational and methodological upgrades, its performance has been continuously improved and applied in multidisciplinary fields. Currently, the measurement sensitivity for radiocarbon and tritium is 14C/12C ∼ (3.14 ± 0.05) ×10–15 and 3H/1H ∼ (1.23 ± 0.17)×10–16, respectively, and the measurement accuracy is ∼0.6%, which can meet the measurement requirements in the nuclear, earth, environmental and life science fields. This study presents the performance characteristics of GXNU-AMS and several interesting application studies.
Programmable active matter (PAM) combines information processing and energy transduction. The physical embodiment of information could be the direction of magnetic spins, a sequence of molecules, the concentrations of ions, or the shape of materials. Energy transduction involves the transformation of chemical, magnetic, or electrical energies into mechanical energy. A major class of PAM consists of material systems with many interacting units. These units could be molecules, colloids, microorganisms, droplets, or robots. Because the interaction among units determines the properties and functions of PAMs, the programmability of PAMs is largely due to the programmable interactions. Here, we review PAMs across scales, from supramolecular systems to macroscopic robotic swarms. We focus on the interactions at different scales and describe how these (often local) interactions give rise to global properties and functions. The research on PAMs will contribute to the pursuit of generalised crystallography and the study of complexity and emergence. Finally, we ponder on the opportunities and challenges in using PAM to build a soft-matter brain.
Polydatin is an active polyphenol displaying multifaceted benefits. Recently, growing studies have noticed its potential therapeutic effects on bone and joint disorders (BJDs). Therefore, this article reviews recent in vivo and in vitro progress on the protective role of polydatin against BJDs. An insight into the underlying mechanisms is also presented. It was found that polydatin could promote osteogenesis in vitro, and symptom improvements have been disclosed with animal models of osteoporosis, osteosarcoma, osteoarthritis and rheumatic arthritis. These beneficial effects obtained in laboratory could be mainly attributed to the bone metabolism-regulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, apoptosis-regulating and autophagy-regulating functions of polydatin. However, studies on human subjects with BJDs that can lead to early identification of the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of polydatin have not been reported yet. Accordingly, this review serves as a starting point for pursuing clinical trials. Additionally, future emphasis should also be devoted to the low bioavailability and prompt metabolism nature of polydatin. In summary, well-designed clinical trials of polydatin in patients with BJD are in demand, and its pharmacokinetic nature must be taken into account.
The relationships between childhood weight self-misperception and obesity-related factors particularly health markers have not been extensively discussed. This study aims to examine the associations between weight self-misperception and obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, lifestyles and cardio-metabolic markers among Chinese paediatric population.
Data sourced from a national survey in Chinese seven provinces in 2013.
Children and adolescents aged 5–19 years.
Of the total 14 079 participants, there were 14·5 % and 2·2 % participants over-estimated and under-perceived their weight, respectively. Multi-variable logistic regression was applied to calculate OR and 95 % CI (95 % Cl) of obesity-related behaviours and cardio-metabolic markers by actual and perceived weight status. Individuals who perceived themselves as overweight/obese were more likely to have prolonged screen time, insufficient dairy intake and over sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (all P < 0·05), regardless of their weight. Furthermore, actual overweight/obese individuals had higher odds of abnormal cardio-metabolic markers, but a smaller magnitude of association was found among weight under-estimators. Among non-overweight/obese individuals, weight over-estimation was positively associated with abdominal obesity (OR: 10·49, 95 % CI: 7·45, 14·76), elevated blood pressure (OR: 1·30, 95 % CI: 1·12, 1·51) and dyslipidemia (OR: 1·43, 95 % CI: 1·29, 1·58).
Weight over-perception was more prevalent than under-estimation, particularly in girls. Weight over-estimators tended to master better knowledge but behave more unhealthily; both weight over-perception and actual overweight/obesity status were associated with poorer cardio-metabolic markers. Future obesity intervention programmes should additionally pay attention to the population with inaccurate estimation of weight who were easily overlooked.
The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) sensing nutritional signals (amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, etc.) are not fully understood. In this research, we used transcriptome sequencing to analyse differentially expressed genes (DEG) in mouse mammary gland tissues at puberty, lactation and involution stages, in which eight GPCR were selected out and verified by qRT-PCR assay. It was further identified the role of GPR110-mediating nutrients including palmitic acid (PA) and methionine (Met) to improve milk synthesis using mouse mammary epithelial cell line HC11. PA but not Met affected GPR110 expression in a dose-dependent manner. GPR110 knockdown decreased milk protein and fat synthesis and cell proliferation and blocked the stimulation of PA on mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation and sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) expression. In summary, these experimental results disclose DEG related to lactation and reveal that GPR110 mediates PA to activate the mTOR and SREBP-1c pathways to promote milk protein and fat synthesis.
Objectives: Rapid and accurate screening for carbapenemase-producing organism (CPOs) in hospitalized patients is critical for infection control and prevention. The Xpert Carba-R assay is designed for rapid detection of CPOs, but 1 assay is usually conducted for only 1 sample. We evaluated a pooling strategy for CPO screening using the Xpert Carba-R assay. Methods: Swab sets containing 2 swabs were collected from 415 unique patients at Peking University People’s Hospital. One swab was used for the pooling test, in which 5 swabs from different patients were mixed in 1 sample treatment solution. The prevalence of CPOs in the hospital (5.3%) predicted that 5:1 pooling was most economical. As the reference method, the other swab was tested by culture using sequencing. Results: Of 415 samples, 383 were CPO negative using the pooling test strategy and 31 were positive. All samples that were negative by pooling were negative by culture and sequencing. Among the 31 positive samples identified by the pooling strategy, 26 were positive by culture and sequencing (including 24 samples with 1 targeted gene and 2 samples with double targeted genes, 1 NDM+/IMP+ and 1 VIM+/IMP+), and 5 were negative. Overall, 198 tests were conducted in the study, and 217 were saved compared with testing individually. The efficiency of the pooling strategy was 215%. The overall sensitivity was 1 (95% CI, 0.840–1), the specificity was 0.987 (95% CI, 0.968–0.995), the accuracy was 0.987 (95% CI, 0.970–0.996), positive predictive value was 0.838 (95% CI, 0.655–0.939), and the negative predictive value was 1 (95% CI, 0.988–1). Conclusions: The pooling strategy using the Xpert Carba-R assay showed good potential in screening CPO with good sensitivity and a significantly lower cost.
The surface wave instability (SWI) of thermocapillary migration is examined by linear stability analysis for a droplet on a unidirectional heated plane. Both a Newtonian fluid and an Oldroyd-B fluid are considered. The droplet, flattened by gravity, is susceptible to two kinds of instabilities: convective instability (CI), which is independent of surface deformation; and SWI, which occurs only when the Galileo number and the surface-tension number are not too large. The wavenumber of the latter is much smaller than that of the former, while the reverse is true for the wave speed. SWI is found at different Prandtl numbers (Pr), while its mode includes streamwise and oblique waves. Energy analysis suggests that the energy of the long-wave mode comes from the shear stress induced by the surface deformation, the energy source for the mode with finite wavelength is the work done by Marangoni forces, while the energy from the basic flow is only important in some cases at small Pr. For the Oldroyd-B fluid, a small elasticity slightly changes the critical Marangoni number of SWI, while larger elasticity changes the preferred mode from SWI to CI. The instability mechanism is discussed and comparisons are made with experimental results.
As optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has been widely adopted for the generation of extreme intensity laser sources, nonlinear crystals of large aperture are demanded for high-energy amplifiers. Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCa4O(BO3)3, YCOB) is capable of being grown with apertures exceeding 100 mm, which makes it possible for application in systems of petawatt scale. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, an ultra-broadband non-collinear optical parametric amplifier with YCOB for petawatt-scale compressed pulse generation at 800 nm. Based on the SG-II 5 PW facility, amplified signal energy of approximately 40 J was achieved and pump-to-signal conversion efficiency was up to 42.3%. A gain bandwidth of 87 nm was realized and supported a compressed pulse duration of 22.3 fs. The near-field and wavefront aberration represented excellent characteristics, which were comparable with those achieved in lithium triborate-based amplifiers. These results verified the great potential for YCOB utilization in the future.
In the Three Gorges and adjacent areas, there are three planation surfaces and five terraces along the Yangtze River that record the evolution history of the river system. Here, we used diagnostic heavy minerals, U-Pb geochronology, and trace elements of detrital zircons from one planation surface, two terraces, and a modern point bar to reconstruct the evolution history of the upper Yangtze River, specifically the Chuan River in the Sichuan Basin. The sediments in the lowest planation surface had different felsic source rocks derived from east of the Three Gorges, which indicated that before the disintegration of the lowest planation surface (0.75 Ma), there were two paleorivers: the westward-flowing paleo-Chuan River and eastward-flowing paleo-Yangtze River separated by the Huangling Dome. At 0.75–0.73 Ma, the dominant detrital zircons from the Sichuan Basin in the sediments of terrace T5 (the highest terrace) confirmed that the paleo-Yangtze River cut through the Three Gorges and captured the paleo-Chuan River, and the Daliang Mountains became the new drainage divide. Finally, the appearance of materials from the upper Jinsha River in terrace T2 indicated that the paleo-Yangtze River progressively captured the paleo-Jinsha River, and the modern upper Yangtze River formed before 0.05 Ma. These river capture events of the upper Yangtze River confirmed the Quaternary uplift of the SE Tibetan Plateau.
In 2016, an outbreak of paratyphoid fever occurred in 40 cases at Qingyang town, in China. A case-control study was carried out to determine the source of this outbreak. Case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors of this outbreak. The cases were identified as patients with isolation of S. Paratyphi, controls were confirmed cases’ healthy classmates, colleagues or neighbors and matched by age (±5 y) and gender. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to source tracking. Totally, 40 cases were reported: 24 cases were students, and 20 (20/24) of them were Qingyang High School students. For the case-control study, consuming Chinese egg pancakes was detected as a risk factor (OR1:1 = 5.000; 95% CI: 1.710-14.640), and hand-washing before meals was protective behavior compared with seldom hand-washing (OR1:1 = 23.256; 95% CI: 2.451-200.000). S. Paratyphi was cultured from a well water sample used for washing contents of the pancakes. Isolates from well water and paratyphoid cases showed the same PFGE patterns. Contaminated well water and Chinese egg pancakes were likely source and vehicle of this outbreak. Health education, especially handwashing, and food safety supervision should be promoted particularly in schools.
There are various matrices to represent parallel mechanisms. It is essential to design a kind of approach to not only denote the parallel structures but also disclose the joint directions. In this paper, a novel methodology called the kinematic joint matrix (KJM) is proposed. It possesses the mapping relations with parallel manipulators with three kinds of kinematic joints. The size of such matrix is smaller when compared with that of topology matrix. A series of two to six degrees-of-freedom parallel architectures is denoted by the KJM. A convenient approach using a special block diagram is introduced to distinguish various kinds of kinematic joint matrices. In addition, detailed comparisons between KJM and topology matrix are investigated. Three regulations are proposed for the latter to be applicable to parallel mechanisms.