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Previous studies have demonstrated structural and functional changes of the hippocampus in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, no studies have analyzed the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of hippocampal subregions in melancholic MDD. We aimed to reveal the patterns for dFC variability in hippocampus subregions – including the bilateral rostral and caudal areas and its associations with cognitive impairment in melancholic MDD.
Forty-two treatment-naive MDD patients with melancholic features and 55 demographically matched healthy controls were included. The sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate whole-brain dFC for each hippocampal subregions seed. We assessed between-group differences in the dFC variability values of each hippocampal subregion in the whole brain and cognitive performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Finally, association analysis was conducted to investigate their relationships.
Patients with melancholic MDD showed decreased dFC variability between the left rostral hippocampus and left anterior lobe of cerebellum compared with healthy controls (voxel p < 0.005, cluster p < 0.0125, GRF corrected), and poorer cognitive scores in working memory, verbal learning, visual learning, and social cognition (all p < 0.05). Association analysis showed that working memory was positively correlated with the dFC variability values of the left rostral hippocampus-left anterior lobe of the cerebellum (r = 0.338, p = 0.029) in melancholic MDD.
These findings confirmed the distinct dynamic functional pathway of hippocampal subregions in patients with melancholic MDD, and suggested that the dysfunction of hippocampus-cerebellum connectivity may be underlying the neural substrate of working memory impairment in melancholic MDD.
With the progress in science and technology, hazardous chemicals are becoming more essential in chemical products, industrial and agricultural production, and daily life. Hazardous chemicals have poisoning, corrosive, explosive, and combusting natures; once on fire, they can trigger a chain of catastrophic incidences, resulting in casualties, property loss, and environmental pollution and posing hazards to life and property. Using the “8–12” explosion of the Ruihai Logistics warehouse in Tianjin Port (Binhai New District, China), the present study analyzes the characteristics of trauma of the casualties in this accident and the emergency medical rescue strategies. The goals were to improve the ability of emergency rescue in such accidents and to save people’s lives and property to the maximum extent.
Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
To investigate if toll-like receptor (TLR) 4/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways mediated crush injury induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats, and if TAK-242 (a specific inhibitor of TLR4) attenuates the injury through inhibiting the signaling pathways.
This study was divided into two parts: (1) Establish the crush injury model: 50 rats were randomly divided into control group and four crush injury groups (n = 10/group). Crush injury groups were given 3kg pressure for eight hours and were sacrificed at the time points of 0h, 6h, 12h, and 24h after relieving pressure. And (2) Select the most obvious injury group (12h group) for drug intervention group. Thirty rats were randomly divided into control group, 12h group, and 12h+TAK-242 group (n = 10/group). Two parts detection were as follows: pathological changes of kidney tissues were observed in Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), myoglobin (Mb), and blood potassium were examined by automatic biochemical analysis instrument. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The TLR4 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), TLR4, and P65 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot, immunohistochemistry staining.
Compared with the control group, kidney tissues were damaged in crush injury groups, and most obvious in the 12h group. The level of serum creatinine, BUN, Mb, blood potassium, IL-6, TNF-α, and TLR4mRNA were increased in the crush injury groups and significantly increased in the 12h group (P <.05). The TLR4 and P65 were significantly increased in the 12h group (P <.05). Compared with the 12h group, kidney tissue damage was significantly reduced in the TAK-242 group (P <.05). The level of serum creatinine, BUN, Mb, blood potassium, IL-6, TNF-α, TLR4mRNA, TLR4, and P65 in the TAK-242 group were significantly reduced (P <.05).
The present findings conclude that TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways mediated crush injury induced AKI in rats, and TAK-242 attenuates the injury through inhibiting the signaling pathways.
As for the efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), one of the important goals is to increase the light harvesting efficiency to further improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE). The excellent photoanode materials should possess a uniform porous structure, a large surface area, high crystallinity, and good stability. Herein, the porous TiO2 electrode (named as S-1.5) with the above merits had been prepared by the simple template-assisted method with camphene as the pore-forming reagent. The surface area of the porous TiO2 electrode can be tailored by introducing the amount of camphene. The porous TiO2 layer with the optimal surface area directly adhered on the top of the ultra-thin P25 dense layer had been constructed and this unique electrode with a “double layers structure”, which named as S-1.5/P25. When DSSCs assembled with this photoanode, a desirable PCE of 8.31% had been achieved, which was obviously higher than that of the commercial P25 (7.62%) in parallel. The improved PCE can be attributed to the improved utilization of sunlight, the facilitated photo-generated electron transfer, and the reduced interface resistance. Meanwhile, the related characterization including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy was characterized to explore the possible mechanism.
Disasters such as an earthquake, a flood, and an epidemic usually lead to large numbers of casualties accompanied by disruption of the functioning of local medical institutions. A rapid response of medical assistance and support is required. Mobile hospitals have been deployed by national and international organizations at disaster situations in the past decades, which play an important role in saving casualties and alleviating the shortage of medical resources. In this paper, we briefly introduce the types and characteristics of mobile hospitals used by medical teams in disaster rescue, including the aspects of structural form, organizational form, and mobile transportation. We also review the practices of mobile hospitals in disaster response and summarize the problems and needs of mobile hospitals in disaster rescue. Finally, we propose the development direction of mobile hospitals, especially on the development of intelligence, rapid deployment capabilities, and modularization, which provide suggestions for further research and development of mobile hospitals in the future.
The sense of bitter taste is critical for chickens to acquire and select feeds. It is important to understand the roles and mechanisms of bitter taste transduction in chickens. Denatonium is extensively used as a bitter taste receptor agonist to activate bitter taste receptors in recent studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological effects and the potential molecular mechanisms of dietary exposure to a strong bitter taste receptor agonist on the jejunal epithelial cells of yellow-feathered chickens. A total of 240 yellow-feathered chickens were divided into four treatments receiving a normal diet (Control), a low-dose denatonium treatment (Control + 5 mg/kg denatonium), a middle-dose denatonium treatment (Control + 20 mg/kg denatonium) and a high-dose denatonium treatment (Control + 100 mg/kg denatonium) for 56 days, respectively. The results showed that dietary denatonium reduced (P < 0.05) the growth performance of chickens. High-dose denatonium damaged the morphology of the jejunal epithelium and decreased (P < 0.05) the activities of Ca2+-ATPase, sucrase and maltase after 56 days of exposure. Meanwhile, high-dose denatonium increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expressions of bitter taste receptors, which resulted in enhanced apoptosis in jejunal epithelial cells after 56 days of exposure. Furthermore, middle-dose and high-dose denatonium exhibited increased (P < 0.05) mRNA level of claudin 2 and decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA level of occludin after 28 days of exposure. Only high-dose denatonium decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA level of occludin after 56 days of exposure. In conclusion, denatonium manifested deleterious effects on the jejunum of chickens in a dose–effect manner via damaging the morphology of the jejunal epithelium, and inducing apoptosis associated with bitter taste receptors. Our data suggest that bitter-tasting feed additives may have side effects on the growth and development of intestines in chickens.
In recent years, with the increasingly frequent variety of large-scale disasters that have happened in China, the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces (PAP) has undertaken increasingly frequent and diversified tasks, which has led to greater requirements for the construction of emergency medical rescue equipment. Therefore, as determined by the characteristics of the PAP’s tasks and based on the construction of special boxes and frame tent equipment, a new PAP mobile rescue hospital system was successfully developed, and all PAP provincial-level medical rescue teams have been equipped with this system. In the present article, we describe this mobile rescue hospital system, which is mainly composed of professional emergency vehicles, frame-type tents, and advanced medical equipment. The system has the following characteristics: significant integration, a fast response, flexibility, and practicability. The mobile rescue system is generally used as the army’s own health service support system and to provide certain emergency medical rescue services to disaster-stricken people. The successful construction and further application of this system have significance in terms of accelerating the response of rescue teams and the emergency treatment ability of the PAP’s provincial-level emergency medical rescue teams. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:455–459)
Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) has recently caused multiple outbreaks. This study examined polymorphisms in CD46 to determine their involvement in HAdV-55 infection.
A total of 214 study subjects infected with HAdV-55 were included in our study. The study subjects were divided into those with silent infections (n=91), minor infections (n=85), and severe infections (n=38). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CD46 were examined.
Compared with the AA genotype, the TT genotype at rs2724385 (CD46, A/T) was associated with a protective effect against disease occurrence, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.20 (0.04-0.97) (P=0.038). There were no significant differences between the patients with minor and severe infection and those who had silent HAdV-55 infection in the other CD46 SNPs. We next compared the polymorphisms of these genes according to disease severity in HAdV-55-infected patients with clinical symptoms. The results showed that there were no significant differences between minor infections and severe infections.
Our results suggested that the CD46 SNP at rs2724385 is associated with the occurrence of disease in HAdV-55-infected patients. A much larger number of samples is required to understand the role of CD46 polymorphisms in the occurrence and progression of infection by HAdV-55. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:427–430)
To explore the 3-tiered treatment model for medical treatment after an earthquake.
Based on the practices of the national emergency medical rescue services in the Lushan earthquake zone, the 3-tiered treatment classification approach was retrospectively reviewed.
Medical rescue teams assembled and reported quickly to the disaster areas after the earthquake. The number of injured people had reached 25,176 as of April 30; of these, 18,611 people were treated as outpatients, 6565 were hospitalized, and 977 were seriously or severely injured.
The 3-tiered treatment model was the main approach used by rescue services after the Lushan earthquake. Primary and secondary treatments were of the highest importance and formed the basis of the Lushan model of earthquake rescue and treatment. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 301–304)
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
To retrospectively analyze the rescue and treatment of pediatric patients by the Chinese Red Cross medical team during the Nepal earthquake relief.
The medical team set up a field hospital; the pediatric clinic consisted of 1 pediatrician and several nurses. Children younger than 18 years old were placed in the pediatric clinic for injury examination and treatment.
During the 7-day period of medical assistance (the second to third week after the earthquake), a total of 108 pediatric patients were diagnosed and treated, accounting for 2.8% of the total patients. The earthquake-related injuries mainly required surgical dressing and debridement. No severe limb fractures or traumatic brain injuries were found. Infection of the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin were the most common ailments, accounting for 42.3%, 18.5%, and 16.7%, respectively, of the total treated patients.
Two to 3 weeks after the earthquake, the admitted pediatric patients mainly displayed respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. When developing a rescue plan and arranging medical resources, we should consider the necessity of treating non–disaster-related conditions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4)
On April 25, 2015, a massive 8.1-magnitude earthquake struck Nepal at 2:11 pm (Beijing time). The 68-member-strong China International Search & Rescue Team (CISAR) left for Nepal at 6 am, April 26, to help with relief work. The CISAR was the first foreign team to rescue a survivor who was trapped beneath the rubble in the Gongabu area after the earthquake. On May 8, the team fulfilled the search-and-rescue mission and returned to Beijing. During the 2 weeks of rescue work, the team treated more than 3700 victims and cleared approximately 430 buildings. In this rescue mission, 10 experienced medical officers (including nine doctors and a nurse) from the General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force (PAP) comprised the medical team of CISAR. In this report, we focus on the medical rescues by CISAR and discuss the characteristics of the medical rescue in Nepal. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:536–538)
To determine dynamic changes in clinical characteristics by examining an outbreak of adenovirus infection that occurred from December 20, 2012, to February 25, 2013, in Tianjin, China.
Active surveillance for febrile respiratory illnesses was conducted, and medical records of patients were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used for pathogen identification and viral genome study, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare the mean values of normally distributed continuous variables. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used if continuous variables were not normally distributed. Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare categorical variables.
The outbreak was sourced from the index case diagnosed as the common cold on December 20, 2012; a total of 856 cases were reported in the following 66 days. The pathogen was identified as human adenovirus (HAdV) 55. The symptoms manifested differently in severe and mild cases. Routine blood examinations, liver function indexes, and heart function indexes showed different dynamic patterns over time in hospitalized patients.
Clinical characteristics and laboratory examinations may reveal unique patterns over the course of HAdV-55 infection. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:464–469)
Chitosan (CS) is currently used as a hemostatic agent in emergencies and in military settings. However, its application is limited owing to its poor hydrophilia at neutral pH. Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) is an important, water-soluble derivative of CS. In this study, we prepared CS and CMCS microspheres (CSMs and CMCSMs, respectively) and evaluated their hemostatic effect.
To prepare the microspheres of various sizes, we used the emulsion cross-linking technique. CMCSMs were also loaded with etamsylate (DIC). Clotting time in vitro and in a hepatic injury model was examined to evaluate the hemostatic effect.
CMCSMs swelled more and clotted faster than did CSMs. CMCSMs loaded with DIC had no effect on hemostasis.
Both increasing material hydrophilicity and expanding the contact area promoted clotting, whereas chemical cross-linking hampered it because of decreased swelling. CMCSMs are promising candidates for the production of effective hemostatic agents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:660–667)
Recent cladistic analyses have all suggested a diapsid origin of ichthyosaurs. However, an intermediate evolutionary stage of the lower temporal region of ichthyosaurian skull between basal diapsids and derived ichthyosaurs has been absent from the fossil record. Here we describe the cranial skeleton of a new mixosaurid ichthyosaur specimen with a well-preserved lower temporal region from the Anisian Guanling Formation of eastern Yunnan. It is characterized by the most primitive lower temporal region within known ichthyosaurs. The primitive characters of the lower temporal region include both external and internal separation between the jugal and the quadratojugal, an anterior process of the quadratojugal, an apparent posteroventral process of the jugal, and a large lower temporal opening surrounded by the jugal, the postorbital, the squamosal, and the quadratojugal. The lower temporal region of this specimen provides the most direct evidence to the diapsid origin of ichthyosaurs. It also suggests that the disappearance of the lower temporal fenestra is caused initially by the reduction of the lower temporal arcade rather than the enlargement of the surrounding bones.
Recently, the detection of non-bulk superconductivity with unexpectedly high onset-Tcs up to 49 K in Pr-doped CaFe2As2 [(Ca,Pr)122] single crystals and the report of a Tc up to 65 K in one-unit-cell (1UC) FeSe epi-films, offer an unusual opportunity to seek an answer to the question posed in the title. Through systematic compositional, structural, resistive, and magnetic investigations on (Ca,Pr)122 single crystals, we have observed a doping-level-independent Tc, the simultaneous appearance of superparamagnetism and superconductivity, large magnetic anisotropy, and the existence of mesoscopic-2D structures in these crystals, thus providing clear evidence consistent with the proposed interface-enhanced Tc in these naturally occurring rareearth-doped Fe-based superconductors, (Ca,R)122. Similar resistive and magnetic measurements were also made on the 3–4UC FeSe ultrathin epi-films. We have detected weak links in the Meissner state below 20 K, weakly coupled small superconducting patches between 20–45 K, and collective excitations of spin and/or superconducting nature between 45–80 K. The unusual frequency dependences of the diamagnetic moment observed in the films in different temperature ranges will be presented and their implications discussed.
Adsorption of Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells on red mud (RM) is important in the interactions between RM and bacteria. The objective of this work is to study adsorption of E. coli onto RM and to determine its influence in relation to the surface properties of RM. The effects of different calcination temperatures on the surface properties of red mud were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (surface measurement)/N2 adsorption method, and zeta potential analysis. A higher adsorption capacity was observed from RM calcinated at 700 °C (RM700) due to larger pores formed on the surface of RM. The correlation between the adsorption efficacy and surface properties of RM is discussed and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory suggests that when the adsorption reaches equilibrium, the increased adsorption of E. coli onto RM is due to the smaller energy barrier between E. coli and RM700 as compared with that between E. coli and raw RM (RM0).