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The interactions between copper (Cu++) and cyanide (CN−) with 1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium ion (paraquat) on phytotoxicity to Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick, IAC 251, were determined by measuring chlorophyll absorbance at 434 and 670 mμ. Cu++ inhibited phytotoxicity and CN− accelerated paraquat activity with highly significant mutually antagonistic interactions occurring between Cu++ (2 ppm) and CN− (16 ppm) at paraquat levels to 2 ppm.
A number of electrical components and devices work in extreme environment such as high temperature, high pressure, strong vibration, corrosive chemicals, etc. A common practice to protect them is to shield them in materials that are mechanically and chemically resistant to these harsh conditions. In this scenario, epoxy bonding is preferred and it is crucial to have high bonding strength. One example is the acoustic transducers used in oil drilling. The temperature can reach 200 °C and the pressure can reach 140 MPa. The piezoelectric ceramic parts cannot withstand these conditions so different packaging materials are used such as polyether ether ketone (PEEK).
Here an epoxy bonding apparatus is presented that has demonstrated ultrahigh bonding strength. Though epoxy resin is degassed before applying, which gets rid of air bubbles generated in the mixing process, there is trapped air when two surfaces are closed together. This trapped air has minuscule effect for applications in ambient environment, but under extreme environment, it compromises the bonding strength majorly. We devised a vacuum system that contains a motorized stage with the bonding parts attached. After the epoxy is applied and the system is pumped to 1% vacuum, a computer controls the motor to move the bonding parts into contact. Since the entire operation is in vacuum, it leaves no trapped air and results in increased bonding strength. This apparatus confirmed the importance of surface preparation, including removal of air by starting the cure in vacuum (5 mm Hg) and subsequently releasing the vacuum .
Another technique to improve the bonding strength utilizes the finding that a uniform epoxy resin layer between 50 µm and 150 µm  results in the optimal bonding strength. Here we applied spacers such as optic fiber (125 µm in diameter) or glass fiber fabric (150 µm in thickness) in between the bonding surfaces. These spacers ensure that the epoxy resin layer is of uniform thickness. It also utilizes the principle of glass-epoxy compositing to increase mechanical strength by fiber reinforcement and load distribution [3, 4].
The above bonding apparatus has been proven to increase the bonding strength by experiments. Acoustic transducers bonded with this technique passed the high pressure, high temperature tests resembling the oil drilling conditions.
In the oil and gas industry, acoustic transducers have been found to provide valuable geological sonic information such as compressional wave velocity, shear wave velocity, and rock formation slowness. These data can be used to indicate lithology, determine porosity, detect over-pressured formation zones, and check well to well correlation. One category of such acoustic transducers is equipped with piezoelectric elements. Conventional piezoelectric transducers are packaged by epoxy resin. Because of the liquid nature of uncured epoxy resin, it is difficult to position the piezoelectric elements accurately. The introduction of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) as the packaging material solved this issue. Due to the ease of machining on solid form, architectures of the composite acoustic transducers can be devised with great flexibility and creativity. These designs can be modeled with finite element methods (FEM) and the best design for the oil drilling application can be finalized and fabricated.
COMSOL Multiphysics® solves problems in a programming environment that integrates relevant physics. In this case, it includes electrical circuit, solid mechanics, acoustics, and piezoelectricity. Here a compete model and procedure to study the performance of an architected composite acoustic transducer is provided. The displacement analysis gives insights into the resonance modes of the piezoelectric elements. The acoustics analysis gives the necessary information on the acoustic performance of the transducers, such as acoustic pressure spatial distribution, acoustic pressure frequency response, transmitting voltage response, and directivity. These are important criteria to judge the effectiveness of an architected transducer.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
The 2009 novel H1N1 influenza pandemic had a significant impact on Shenzhen's population with 2063 laboratory-confirmed human H1N1 cases and five deaths being reported. We used parameters from two population-based surveys and the Shenzhen Influenza Surveillance System to estimate the total number of H1N1 influenza infections in Shenzhen in the 2009 pandemic. The attack rate of influenza-like illness (ILI) in family households was 11·2% (95% CI 9·4–13·0), with 80·2% (95% CI 77·8–82·5) seeking medical care. The ILI attack rate in workers was 38·1% (95% CI 34·3–41·7) with 72·5% (95% CI 66·9–78·0) seeking medical care. The average H1N1 positive rate in individuals reporting ILI and testing by polymerase chain reaction was 22·7%. A total of 611 000–768 000 people, or 4·7–5·9% of the Shenzhen population, are estimated to have experienced H1N1 influenza. The estimated total number of cases of H1N1 is likely to be 330 times greater than the number of laboratory-confirmed cases.
Next-generation bioanalytical approaches for protein-level measurements are advanced by the integration capacity of microfluidic design strategies, as well as the fine fluid and material control possible. Photopatterning of polymers within fluidic volumes is a key tool in the suite of technologies available for seamless integration of assay measurement modalities, as well as rapid target detection. Here, we overview recent advances in heterogeneous and homogeneous immunoassays using functional polymers, electrophoretic transport, and microdevices.
Shenzhen is one of the largest migratory metropolitan cities in China. A standardized influenza surveillance system has been operating in Shenzhen for several years. The objectives of the present study were to describe the epidemiology of influenza in Shenzhen and to assess the impact of pandemic H1N1 on influenza activity. An average rate of 71 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI)/1000 consultations was reported, which was greater than the rate in the preceding 3 years. Laboratory surveillance showed that the annual proportion of specimens positive for influenza was 25·4% in 2009, representing a significant increase over the proportions of 5·4%, 11·6% and 12·2% in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. A total of 414 ILI outbreaks were reported in 2009, which was a marked increase compared to the previous 3 years. Influenza activity reached a record high in Shenzhen in 2009. Seasonal A/H3N2 was the dominant strain during the summer and was gradually replaced by pandemic H1N1. A semi-annual cycle for influenza circulation began to appear due to the emergence of pandemic H1N1.
Field experiments (15 years) were carried out to study the effects of no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) management practices on the soil chemical properties, microbial biomass, soil enzymatic activities and winter wheat yield on a cinnamon soil in Shanxi, on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Compared to CT, NT increased soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and soil total phosphorus in the 0–100 mm layer by 25, 18 and 7%, respectively. Microbial biomass C and N contents under NT were 41 and 57% greater than under CT on the same layer. In general, higher enzymatic activities were found in the more superficial layers of soil under NT than under CT in the same layer. Winter wheat yield was c. 20% higher under NT than under CT. These findings have implications for understanding how conservation tillage practices improve soil quality and sustainability in the rainfed dryland farming areas of northern China.
H2A histone family, member Z (H2A.Z) is required for early mammalian development. In the present study, the 932 bp of full-length cDNA encoding a 128 amino-acid protein and the sequences of intron 2 to 4 of the porcine H2A histone family, member Z (pH2AFZ) gene were obtained. By comparative sequencing of pH2AFZ gene in Large White and Meishan pigs, a 4 bp deletion/insertion in intron 2 was detected and a PCR-Bsu15I-RFLP was established to detect this variation. In DIV (4th Dam line of Chinese lean-type new lines) pigs, the first-parity females with AA genotype had fewer piglets born alive (−2.64 and −1.83 piglets per litter) than those with AB (P < 0.01) and BB (P < 0.05) genotype. The additive allelic and dominance effect were estimated to be 0.92 (P < 0.05) and −0.87 piglets per litter (P < 0.01) for number of piglets born alive, respectively. This result suggests that the pH2AFZ gene might be a good candidate gene of litter-size trait and provides some marker information for marker-assisted selection.
Photoelastic optical waveguides using strain-compensated InAsP/InGaP multiplequantum-well (MQW) have been fabricated. Lateral light confinement for waveguiding is achieved by introducing stress into semiconductor heterostructures with stable WNi surface stressor stripes. The waveguides have been characterized at both 1.52 μm and 1.32 μm wavelength in term of TE/TM intensity ratio. At 1.52 μm, the waveguides favor the propagation of TE mode, and the TE/TM intensity ratio can be as large as 15 dB. At 1.32 μm, the TE and TM intensity can be comparable. Anisotropy of waveguides fabricated along  or  directions has also been observed in term of TE/TM intensity ratio, which suggests the presence of anisotropic property of the strain-compensated MQW.
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