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Transient forebrain ischemia was induced in rats whose brain temperature was 31, 33, 35, 38, or 40°C. The development of regional injury was followed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with the ultimate extent of neuronal injury quantified histopathologically. Animals in the hypothermic groups showed minimal changes in MR images over 4 days; normothermic animals snowed intensity enhancement attributed to progressive edema developing in the striatum and, later, in the hippocampus. Ischemia at 40°C resulted in widespread edema formation by I day post-ischemia; animals in this group did not survive beyond 30 hours. Histopathological analysis at 4 days (1 day for the hyperthermic group) post-ischemia showed that neuronal damage in the normothermic group was confined to the hippocampus and striatum. Minimal damage was found in the hypothermic groups; damage in the hyperthermic group was severe throughout the forebrain. There were no differences in the pre-ischemia 31P MR spectra for the different groups. During ischemia, the increase in intensity of the Pi peak and the fall in tissue pH increased with temperature in the order hypothermic < normothermic < hyperthermic group of animals. Post-ischemia energy recovery was similar in all groups, while pH recovered more rapidly in hypothermic animals.
CaMnO3 is a parent compound for numerous multicomponent manganese perovskite oxides. Its crystallographic data are of primary importance in the science and technology of functional CaMnO3-based materials. In the present study, data were collected for a CaMnO3 sample at 302 K. The crystal structure refinement yields accurate absolute values of lattice parameters, a=5.281 59(4) Å, b=7.457 30(4) Å, and c=5.267 48(4) Å, leading to orthorhombic distortion of (c/a, √2c/b)=(0.997 33,0.998 95). The orthorhombic distortion of the CaMnO3 structure is discussed on the basis of comparison of our unit-cell size with data already published. At a graphical representation of the distortion, it is observed that there is a considerable scatter of the distortion values among the literature data but, interestingly, a considerable fraction of experimental results (including the present one) for stoichiometric samples are grouped around the distortion (c/a, √2c/b)=(0.9973,0.9990), which lies close to a maximum in the extent of orthorhombicity. The influence of off-stoichiometry on the orthorhombic distortion is discussed on the basis of available experimental data. Simulations, employing a mean-field approach for low temperatures, predict an increase in cell volume and structural distortions with the concentration of oxygen vacancies when the additional electrons are localized on the manganese. A simple model of delocalization produced the opposite effect, which is expected to combine with lattice vibrations to recover the cubic phase at high temperatures.
Extrasolar planets in binary and multiple star systems have become a noticeable niche with about 50 planets among over 500 known. Here we however focus on a particular subset of exoplanets in binary star systems — circumbinary planets. They have the unique advantage that a search for circumbinary planets does also significantly contribute to the understanding of their parent stars. We review what is currently known about circumbinary planets and then introduce our two projects aimed at detecting circumbinary planets: The TATOOINE project to find circumbinary planets around non-eclipsing double-lined spectroscopic binary stars with precision radial velocities, and the SOLARIS project to detect circumbinary planets with the timing of eclipses of eclipsing binary stars. For the SOLARIS project, we were granted 2.6 million USD to establish a network of at least four robotic 0.5-m telescopes on three continents (Australia, Africa and South America) to carry out precision photometry of a sample of eclipsing binary stars. We expect that both projects will have a large impact also on the observational stellar astronomy.
The main objective of this paper is a presentation of an experimental identification of a non-direct drive robot and load dynamic parameters, which appear in the integral model. The last one is based on the energy theorem formulation. In the robotics literature there are not many experimental results known to the authors, concerning the identification of the dynamic parameters of different models. In order to satisfy this, the experimental system has been built around an industrial ASEA IRp-6 robot. In this paper we propose to precompute the friction characteristics which are separated in the integral model. Various aspects of the exciting trajectories are considered. It is shown how to identify the friction coefficients using a short integral model. The experimental results are presented, including comparison of the results for both integral and differential identification. The identified models are verified by computing the predicted torques and trajectories
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