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It is unclear what session frequency is most effective in cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression.
Compare the effects of once weekly and twice weekly sessions of CBT and IPT for depression.
We conducted a multicentre randomised trial from November 2014 through December 2017. We recruited 200 adults with depression across nine specialised mental health centres in the Netherlands. This study used a 2 × 2 factorial design, randomising patients to once or twice weekly sessions of CBT or IPT over 16–24 weeks, up to a maximum of 20 sessions. Main outcome measures were depression severity, measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II at baseline, before session 1, and 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months after start of the intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted.
Compared with patients who received weekly sessions, patients who received twice weekly sessions showed a statistically significant decrease in depressive symptoms (estimated mean difference between weekly and twice weekly sessions at month 6: 3.85 points, difference in effect size d = 0.55), lower attrition rates (n = 16 compared with n = 32) and an increased rate of response (hazard ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00–2.18).
In clinical practice settings, delivery of twice weekly sessions of CBT and IPT for depression is a way to improve depression treatment outcomes.
In patients after atrioventricular septal defect correction, altered geometry leads to a changed position and subsequent flow over the left ventricular outflow tract. We hypothesised that this altered flow may influence haemodynamics in the ascending aorta.
In total, 30 patients after atrioventricular septal defect correction (age 27.6 ± 12.8 years) and 28 healthy volunteers (age 24.8 ± 13.7 years) underwent 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Left ventricular ejection fraction and mean and peak wall shear stress calculated at ascending aortic peak systole were obtained from cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Left ventricular outflow tract data including velocity and diameter were obtained from echocardiography.
Patients showed a higher mean (911 ± 173 versus 703 ± 154 mPa, p = 0.001) and peak ascending aortic wall shear stress (1264 ± 302 versus 1009 ± 240 mPa, p = 0.001) compared to healthy volunteers. Increased blood flow velocities over the left ventricular outflow tract (1.49 ± 0.30 m/s versus 1.22 ± 0.20 m/s, p < 0.001) correlated well with mean and peak ascending aortic wall shear stress (r = 0.67, p < 0.001 and r = 0.77, p < 0.001).
After atrioventricular septal defect correction, increased wall shear stress was observed, which correlated to velocities over the left ventricular outflow tract. These findings imply that altered outflow tract geometry contributes to changed aortic haemodynamics.
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