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Few studies provide clear rationale for and the reception of adaptations of evidence-based interventions. To address this gap, we describe the context-dependent adaptations in critical time intervention-task shifting (CTI-TS), a manualized recovery program for individuals with psychosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Santiago, Chile. Implications of the adaptations – incorporating a task-shifting approach and modifying the mode of community-based service delivery – are examined from users' perspectives.
A secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with CTI-TS users (n = 9 in Brazil; n = 15 in Chile) was conducted. Using the framework method, we thematically compared how participants from each site perceived the main adapted components of CTI-TS.
Users of both sites appreciated the task-shifting worker pair to provide personalized, flexible, and relatable support. They wanted CTI-TS to be longer and experienced difficulty maintaining intervention benefits in the long-term. In Chile, stigma and a perceived professional hierarchy toward the task-shifting providers were more profound than in Brazil. Engagement with community-based services delivery in homes and neighborhoods (Chile), and at community mental health centers (Brazil) were influenced by various personal, familial, financial, and social factors. Uniquely, community violence was a significant barrier to engagement in Brazil.
CTI-TS’ major adaptations were informed by the distinct mental health systems and social context of Santiago and Rio. Evaluation of user experiences with these adaptations provides insights into implementing and scaling-up task-shifting and community-oriented interventions in the region through the creation of specialized roles for the worker pair, targeting sustained intervention effects, and addressing socio-cultural barriers.
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