To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To examine the association between red/processed meat consumption and glycaemic conditions (i.e. prediabetes (preDM) and diabetes mellitus (DM)) among middle-aged residents in rural Khánh Hòa, Vietnam.
In this cross-sectional study, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine the association between daily consumption of red/processed meat (0–99 g, 100–199 g or ≥ 200 g) and preDM/DM with adjustments for socio-demographic, lifestyle-related and health-related variables.
Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam
The study used data collected through a baseline survey conducted during a prospective cohort study on CVD among 3000 residents, aged 40–60 years, living in rural communes in Khánh Hòa Province.
The multinomial regression model revealed that the relative-risk ratios for DM were 1·00 (reference), 1·11 (95 % CI = 0·75, 1·62) and 1·80 (95 % CI = 1·40, 2·32) from the lowest to the highest red/processed meat consumption categories (Ptrend = 0·006). The corresponding values for preDM were 1·00 (reference), 1·25 (95 % CI = 1·01, 1·54) and 1·67 (95 % CI = 1·20, 2·33) (Ptrend = 0·004). We did not find any evidence of statistical significance in relation to poultry consumption.
Increased red/processed meat consumption, but not poultry consumption, was positively associated with the prevalence of preDM/DM in rural communes in Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam. Dietary recommendations involving a reduction in red/processed meat consumption should be considered in low- and middle-income countries.
Using the meta-analysis technique, this research comprehensively reviews the existing open innovation (OI) literature, systematically aggregates empirical findings on the impact of OI on performance to identify key moderators and statistically tests the significance of these moderators in influencing the OI–performance relationship. Based on a comprehensive dataset of 2,377,123 firms and sub-firm units in 171 studies published from 2003 to 2018, this research demonstrates that the OI–performance relationship is significantly moderated by three key factors: performance measure, OI approach, and level of analysis. This research helps explain the conflicting findings regarding the OI–performance relationship in the existing literature, and contributes to the understanding of the effectiveness of OI practice.
This chapter provides an overview of technology-mediated corrective feedback by focusing on spelling, grammar and writing, and pronunciation. Our overview of the technologies along with the research that has been conducted shows that significant progress has been made over the past decades in assisting students with their L2 language studies. Nevertheless, there is room for further research which we identify in each respective section. Most importantly, however, we conclude that studies need to investigate the long-term efficacy of technology-mediated feedback when students use these tools in the language learning classroom or outside independently. In addition, technology-mediated corrective feedback is by no means 100% accurate and learners need guidance from language instructors, especially with regards to learning not to overly rely on the technology.
To determine if a global mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) cut-off can be established to classify underweight in adults (men and non-pregnant women).
We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) to explore the sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of various MUAC cut-offs for identifying underweight among adults (defined as BMI < 18·5 kg/m2). Measures of diagnostic accuracy were determined every 0·5 cm across MUAC values from 19·0 to 26·5 cm. A bivariate random effects model was used to jointly estimate SENS and SPEC while accounting for heterogeneity between studies. Various subgroup analyses were performed.
Twenty datasets from Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, North America and South America were included.
All eligible participants from the original datasets were included.
The total sample size was 13 835. Mean age was 32·6 years and 65 % of participants were female. Mean MUAC was 25·7 cm, and 28 % of all participants had low BMI (<18·5 kg/m2). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the pooled dataset was 0·91 (range across studies 0·61–0·98). Results showed that MUAC cut-offs in the range of ≤23·5 to ≤25·0 cm could serve as an appropriate screening indicator for underweight.
MUAC is highly discriminatory in its ability to distinguish adults with BMI above and below 18·5 kg/m2. This IPDMA is the first step towards determining a global MUAC cut-off for adults. Validation studies are needed to determine whether the proposed MUAC cut-off of 24 cm is associated with poor functional outcomes.
There is a need for accurate, inexpensive and field-friendly methods to assess body composition in children. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a promising approach; however, there have been limited validation and use among young children in resource-poor settings. We aim to develop and validate population-specific prediction equations for estimating total fat mass (FM), fat free-mass (FFM) and percentage body fat (PBF) in Vietnamese children (4–7 years) using reactance and resistance from BIA, anthropometric variables and demographic information. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 120 children. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), BIA and anthropometry. To develop prediction equations, we split all data into development (70 %) and validation datasets (30 %). The model performance was evaluated using predicted residual error sum of squares, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and R2. We identified a top performing model with the least number of parameters (age, sex, weight and resistance index or resistance and height), low RMSE (FM 0·70, FFM 0·74, PBF 3·10), low MAE (FM 0·55, FFM 0·62, PBF 2·49), high R2 (FM 0·95, FFM 0·92, PBF 0·82) and the least difference between predicted values and actual values from DXA (FM 0·03 kg or 0·01 sd, FFM 0·06 kg or 0·02 sd, PBF 0·27 % or 0·04 sd). In conclusion, we developed the first valid and highly predictive equations to estimate FM, FFM and PBF in Vietnamese children using BIA. These findings have important implications for future research on the double burden of disease and risks associated with overweight and obesity in young children.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, sequences types and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles have specific associations with animal and human infections in Vietnam. Antimicrobial resistance may have an effect on the manifestation of human NTS infections, with isolates from asymptomatic individuals being more susceptible to antimicrobials than those associated with animals and human diarrhoea.
This chapter, provides an overview of bladder exstrophy repair. The author reviews the pathophysiology and associated anomalies related to bladder exstrophy. The surgical approaches and related anesthetic considerations are discussed.
The Lung Cam expanded stratigraphic succession in Vietnam is correlated herein to the Meishan D section in China, the GSSP for the Permian–Triassic boundary. The first appearance datum of the conodont Hindeodus parvus at Meishan defines the Permian–Triassic boundary, and using published graphic correlation, the Permian–Triassic boundary level has been projected into the Lung Cam section. Using time-series analysis of magnetic susceptibility (χ) data, it is determined that H. parvus arrived at Lung Cam ∼18 kyr before the Permian–Triassic boundary. Data indicate that the Lung Cam section is expanded by ∼90 % relative to the GSSP section at Meishan. Given the expanded Lung Cam section, it is possible to resolve the timing of significant events during the Permian–Triassic transition with high precision. These events include major stepped extinctions, beginning at ∼135 kyr and ending at ∼110 kyr below the Permian–Triassic boundary, with a duration of ∼25 kyr, followed by deposition of Lung Cam ash Bed + 13, which is equivalent to Siberian Traps volcanism is graphically correlated to a precession Time-series model, placing onset of this major volcanic event at ~242 kyr before the PTB. The Meishan Beds 25 and 26, at ∼100 kyr before the Permian–Triassic boundary. In addition, the elemental geochemical, carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and magnetostratigraphy susceptibility datasets from Lung Cam allow good correlation to other Permian–Triassic boundary succession. These datasets are helpful when the conodont biostratigraphy is poorly known in sections with problems such as lithofacies variability, or is undefined, owing possibly to lithofacies exclusions, anoxia or for other reasons. The Lung Pu Permian–Triassic boundary section, ∼45 km from Lung Cam, is used to test these problems.
Nguyen Ngoc Anh, Chief Economist, Development and Policies Research Center (DEPOCEN, Vietnam),
Nguyen Thi Tuong Anh, Vice Dean, Faculty of International Economics, Foreign Trade University, Hanoi,
Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Senior Researcher, Development and Policies Research Center (DEPOCEN, Vietnam),
Nguyen Thi Phuong Mai, Deputy Director, Development and Policies Research Center (DEPOCEN, Vietnam)
During the last decade, Asian countries, especially East and Southeast Asia countries, have witnessed an ever increasing trend of regional integration with the dramatic proliferation of regional free trade agreements (FTAs), both concluded and still in the process of negotiation. This process of regional economic integration has been driven by the mutually reinforcing market forces and trade agreements (regional and preferential). According to data from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the number of FTAs involving at least one Asian country has almost doubled, from 124 in 2005 to 220 in 2016. In addition, there are 67 FTAs being proposed and pending negotiation. This phenomenon is referred to as the “Asian noodle bowl” with the economies of ASEAN and East Asia becoming increasingly integrated. According to data from ADB, the 16 ASEAN+6 countries (10 ASEAN members plus Australia, PRC, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and New Zealand) account disproportionately for over 62 per cent of total FTAs (being in effect and in negotiation) of the total 48 ADB member countries/economies in Asia.
The most important market force that drives international trade in recent years is the rise of global production networks operated by multinationals in which firms slice up a production chain into small production stages and then assigning them each to the most cost effective location across borders (ADB 2010; Helpman 2011). Globally operating firms have been taking advantage of these factors to exploit differences in factor prices (i.e. inputs and low-skilled labour) around the world (Blinder 2006; Baldwin-Edwards 2011) and multinationals are at the forefront of global production networks taking advantage of reductions of trade barriers, rapid advancements in production technology, and a decrease in transport and communication costs as explained by Athukorala (2013). He explains that firstly “rapid advancements in production technology have enabled the industry to slice up the value chain into finer, ‘portable’, components” (i.e. modular production technology with “standard fragments”); secondly “technological innovations in communication and transportation have shrunk the distance that once separated the world's nations, and improved speed, efficiency and economy of coordinating geographically dispersed production process”, and thirdly the “liberalization policy reforms across the world over the past four decades have considerably removed barriers to trade and foreign direct investment (FDI)”.
The history of Vietnam–U.S. relations since the end of the Vietnam War in 1975 is a long and oftentimes delicate journey of forging mutual trust, where none existed before. The end of the war ushered in a period of renewed hostility between the two countries, and prompted Washington to mobilize extensive international embargoes against Hanoi, especially after the latter sent its troops into Cambodia in late 1978. While some attempts to normalize bilateral relations were made within the first few years after the war ended, it was not until the start of Doi Moi in 1986 that Vietnamese leaders became more attuned to the impetus of resuming relations with its former enemy and adapting Vietnam's foreign policy to the new demands of its economic reforms.
In How Enemies Become Friends: The Sources of Stable Peace, Charles Kupchan (2010) examines the process and conditions necessary for two states — irrespective of power dynamics — to make peace with one another and forge a relationship that can be considered institutionalized. Accordingly, while strategic necessity is needed to trigger either side to seek out the other, states must come to a point at which they view their bargaining as no longer taking place under “conditions of suspicion and competition”. In other words, “mutual confidence and trust” allow two states to “minimize the hindrances of uncertainty”. By the same token, states which cannot establish a degree of presumption about the other side's “benign character” do not succeed in reconciling and becoming friends (Kupchan 2010, pp. 389–91).
Given the history of their relations, the creation of the level of mutual trust necessary to rebuild ties was especially challenging, yet critical, for Hanoi and Washington. Despite the cooperation between Ho Chi Minh's revolutionary forces and the United States against the Japanese in the final months of World War II, interactions between the two sides turned precarious at the onset of the Cold War and quickly descended into intense hostility in subsequent decades as they found themselves on opposing sides of the ideological spectrum. As such, building — and reinforcing — trust becomes a prerequisite for not only the normalization but also the strengthening of their relationship.
This article explores whether and how labour law matters in factory workers’ grievances and demands in their letters sent to the unions and state authorities in Đồng Nai Province, an industrial hub in the south of Vietnam. An examination of the letters demonstrates that the legalistic language of rights and other provisions in the Labour Code plays little role in shaping workers’ accounts. A majority of letter writers instead referred to moral aspects of subsistence, reciprocity, and their subjective views of fairness to make their claims. Yet the moral constructions of workers’ claims may overlap and derive from values imbricated within the Labour Code. These observations raise the need to consider the subtle way in which law generates workers’ resistance against management and/or the state, as well as the fluid boundary between law and morality in workers’ narratives of (in)justice.
Since the Doi Moi in 1986, Vietnam has been progressively opening up its services sector. In recent years, it has made significant efforts to liberalize the sector by participating in various trade agreements, including bilateral, and multilateral agreements related to trade in service, namely GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services), AFAS (ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services), different ASEAN+1 FTAs and recently the EU–Vietnam FTA (EVFTA) and Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement. In line with its commitments, Vietnam has reviewed, revised and issued numerous legislative regulations and policies towards a freer flow of services. Consequently, the regulatory framework related to the services sector in Vietnam has become more transparent and open to foreign suppliers, enabling them to have better access to its domestic services market.
However, the ease of doing business in Vietnam remains at a relatively low ranking — the 90th among 189 countries (World Bank 2016), partly because the services-related policies are still relatively restrictive towards foreign direct investment (FDI). Therefore, there is a need for Vietnam to evaluate its challenges in services liberalization, especially in the aspect of commercial presence (i.e. mode 3), by examining the impediments to FDI inflows in services so as to enable Vietnam to benefit from ASEAN's initiatives to liberalize services.
This chapter analyses the development and contribution of the services sector to Vietnam's economy. It also discusses services trade liberalization under AFAS and GATS along with the domestic FDI policies in the services sector. The logistic sector was selected as a case study for a deeper analysis of Vietnam's services liberalization. Based on these economy-wide and sector-specific discussions, the chapter will identify key challenges facing Vietnam in attracting FDI into the services sector. The chapter concludes with policy recommendations for Vietnam as well as for ASEAN.
Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30–100 million people worldwide. Many Southeast-Asian countries report a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection, but there are little data from Vietnam. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis related to geography, sex and age in Vietnam through serological testing of anonymized sera. Sera (n = 1710, 1340 adults and 270 children) from an anonymized age-stratified serum bank from four regions in Vietnam between 2012 and 2013 were tested using a commercial Strongyloides ratti immunoglobulin G ELISA. Seroreactivity was found in 29·1% (390/1340) of adults and 5·5% (15/270) of children. Male adults were more frequently seroreactive than females (33·3% vs. 24·9%, P = 0·001). The rural central highlands had the highest seroprevalence (42·4% of adults). Seroreactivity in the other regions was 29·9% (Hue) and 26·0% and 18·2% in the large urban centres of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, respectively. We conclude that seroprevalence of S. stercoralis was high in the Vietnamese adult population, especially in rural areas.
This article examines how labour law contributes to labour resistance in Vietnam through an empirical case study of the ‘core workers’ in Đồng Nai Province. These core workers are factory workers who have undergone legal training and who provide legal aid to factory workers in need. They have, at the same time, deployed their legal knowledge to demand access to justice for themselves and the factory workers. This article demonstrates that the core workers’ legal consciousness is shaped by their mobilization of the law and their own workplace experiences. It then investigates in detail a core worker’s engagements with individual and collective disputes, and discusses his views on legal aid, labour law, and workplace relationships. This article argues that the core workers’ resistance is not only a fight against illegal practices, but that it also embodies a call for the management’s moral obligations towards its workers.