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Microbiological surveillance of bronchoscopes and automatic endoscope reprocessors (AERs)/washer disinfectors as a quality control measure is controversial. Experts also are divided on the infection risks associated with bronchoscopic procedures.
We evaluated the impact of routine microbiological surveillance and audits of cleaning/disinfection practices on contamination rates of reprocessed bronchoscopes.
Audits were conducted of reprocessing procedures and microbiological surveillance on all flexible bronchoscopes used from January 2007 to June 2020 at a teaching hospital in France. Contamination rates per year were calculated and analyzed using a Poisson regression model. The risk factors for microbiological contamination were analyzed using a multivariable logistical regression model.
In total, 478 microbiological tests were conducted on 91 different bronchoscopes and 57 on AERs. The rate of bronchoscope contamination significantly decreased between 2007 and 2020, varying from 30.2 to 0% (P < .0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that retesting after a previous contaminated test was significantly associated with higher risk of bronchoscope contamination (OR, 2.58; P = .015). This finding was explained by the persistence of microorganisms in bronchoscopes despite repeated disinfections. However, the risk of persistent contamination was not associated with the age of the bronchoscope.
Our results confirm that bronchoscopes can remain contaminated despite repeated reprocessing. Routine microbial testing of bronchoscopes for quality assurance and audit of decontamination and disinfection procedures can improve the reprocessing of bronchoscopes and minimize the rate of persistent contamination.
Storage cabinets for heat-sensitive endoscopes (SCHEs) are designed to store gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes in a clean, dry and well-ventilated cupboard to prevent microbiological proliferation. The use of SCHEs in a GI endoscopy unit has significally reduced the rate of contaminated endoscopes (13.0% vs 45.0%, P<.001).
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):1100–1102
A systematic literature review was performed to assess the impact of surgical-staff behaviors on the risk of surgical site infections. Published data are limited, heterogeneous, and weakened by several methodological flaws, underlying the need for more studies with accurate tools.
To assess the current literature regarding the impact of surgical-staff behaviors on the risk of surgical-site infection (SSI).
Systematic literature review.
We searched the Medline, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases for original articles about the impact of intraoperative behaviors on the risk of SSI published in English before September 2013.
We retrieved 27 original articles reporting data on number of people in the operating room (n=14), door openings (n=14; number [n=6], frequency [n=7], reasons [n=4], or duration [n=3]), surgical-team discipline (evidence of distraction; n=4), compliance with traffic measures (n=6), or simulated behaviors (n=3). Most (59%) articles were published in 2009–2013. End points were the 30-day SSI rate (n=8), air-particle count (n=2), or microbiological air counts (n=6); 11 studies were only descriptive. Number of people in the operating room and SSI rate or airborne contaminants (particle/bacteria) were correlated in 2 studies. Door openings and airborne bacteria counts were correlated in 2 observational studies and 1 experimental study. Two cohort studies showed a significant association between surgeon interruptions/distraction or noise and SSI rate. The level of evidence was low in all studies.
Published data about the impact of operating-room behaviors on the risk of infection are limited and heterogeneous. All studies exhibit major methodological flaws. More studies with accurate tools should be performed to address the influence of operating room behaviors on the infectious risk.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(1): 93–106
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