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The development of microfabricated liquid cells has enabled dynamic studies of nanostructures within a liquid environment with electron microscopy. While such setups are most commonly found in transmission electron microscope (TEM) holders, their implementation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) offers intriguing potential for multi-modal studies where the large chamber volume allows for the integration of multiple detectors. Here, we describe an electrochemical liquid cell SEM platform that employs the same cells enclosed by silicon nitride membrane windows found in liquid cell TEM holders and demonstrate the imaging of copper oxide nanoparticles in solution using both backscattered and transmitted electrons. In particular, the transmitted electron images collected at high scattering angles show contrast inversion at liquid layer thicknesses of several hundred nanometers, which can be used to determine the presence of liquid in the cell, while maintaining enough resolution to image nanoparticles that are tens of nanometers in size. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that both imaging modes have their advantages for liquid phase imaging and rationalize the contrast inversion observed in the transmitted electron image.
Thirty-nine hemodialysis patients with permanent central venous catheters were analyzed for bacterial catheter colonization comparing different catheter-lock strategies. The closed needleless Tego connector with sodium chloride lock solution was significantly more frequently colonized with bacteria than the standard catheter caps with antimicrobially active citrate lock solution (odds ratio, 0.22 [95% confidence interval, 0.07–0.71]; P = .011).
We prove that on separated algebraic surfaces every coherent sheaf is a quotient of a locally free sheaf. This class contains many schemes that are neither normal, reduced, quasiprojective nor embeddable into toric varieties. Our methods extend to arbitrary two-dimensional schemes that are proper over an excellent ring.
Usual vector measurements need to compare the signal detected through the Device Under Test DUT, with the signal coming directly from the source. Thanks to a very simple original method developed since 1989, vector detection can also be done with a purely electronic reference. In transmission experiments, there is no need for any directional coupler, and the frequency coverage extends from 8 to 1000 GHz. Quasi-optical propagation is used in the millimeter-submillimeter frequency range. Transmission through dielectric slabs in free space will give an easy measurement of the permittivity. Its real part will be obtained from the phase rotation, and its imaginary part from the amplitude decay. With dielectric coating deposited onto metal, the reflection method is necessary for the characterization. Low-loss materials are characterized with the open cavity perturbation technique. Extremely low loss materials can constitute “whispering gallery” resonators, very easy to excite and characterize.
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