To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing is a prospective study of 1,112 individuals (211 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 768 healthy controls (HCs)). Here we report diagnostic and cognitive findings at the first (18-month) follow-up of the cohort. The first aim was to compute rates of transition from HC to MCI, and MCI to AD. The second aim was to characterize the cognitive profiles of individuals who transitioned to a more severe disease stage compared with those who did not.
Eighteen months after baseline, participants underwent comprehensive cognitive testing and diagnostic review, provided an 80 ml blood sample, and completed health and lifestyle questionnaires. A subgroup also underwent amyloid PET and MRI neuroimaging.
The diagnostic status of 89.9% of the cohorts was determined (972 were reassessed, 28 had died, and 112 did not return for reassessment). The 18-month cohort comprised 692 HCs, 82 MCI cases, 197 AD patients, and one Parkinson's disease dementia case. The transition rate from HC to MCI was 2.5%, and cognitive decline in HCs who transitioned to MCI was greatest in memory and naming domains compared to HCs who remained stable. The transition rate from MCI to AD was 30.5%.
There was a high retention rate after 18 months. Rates of transition from healthy aging to MCI, and MCI to AD, were consistent with established estimates. Follow-up of this cohort over longer periods will elucidate robust predictors of future cognitive decline.
Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m2) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by ‘low-energy reporters’. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.
At 1 year we assessed the neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants undergoing cardiac surgery, seeking to explore the predictive value of perioperative markers of cerebral injury. We prospectively enroled 47 neurodevelopmentally normal infants prior to planned cardiac surgery. Postoperative monitoring consisted of 10-channel video synchronised, continuous electroencephalography from 6 to 30 h, Doppler assessment of cerebral blood flow in the anterior cerebral artery at 1, 2, 3 and 5 h, and measurement of serum S-100B at 0 and 24 h. Neurodevelopmental assessments were performed using the second edition of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development. Follow-up at 1 year was available on 35 infants. The mean age of these patients at surgery had been 57 ± 15 days. We observed clinical seizures in 1 patient, with 3 other patients having electroencephalographic abnormalities. At follow-up of 1 year, neurodevelopmental scores were lower than preoperative scores, with mean mental scores changing from 103 ± 5 to 94 ± 13 (p = 0.001), and mean motor scores changing from 99 ± 8 to 89 ± 20 (p = 0.004). No association was found between electroencephalographic abnormalities, reduced cerebral blood flow, or elevation of serum S-100B levels and impaired neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year. Infants with electroencephalographic abnormalities had elevation of the levels of S-100B in the serum (p = 0.02). At 1 year of follow-up, infants undergoing cardiac surgery demonstrated a reduction in the scores achieved using the second edition of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development. They require ongoing assessment of their progress. Electroencephalographic abnormalities, cerebral blood flow, or levels of S-100B in the serum were not useful perioperative markers for predicting a poor neurodevelopmental outcome in the clinical setting.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.