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Improving fertilizer use efficiency has remained a challenge, particularly for small-scale farming in undulating ‘abnormal’ landscapes of East Africa. Milne's 1930s concept on ‘Catena’ was considered as a breakthrough in understanding soil variability and its implication on productivity in East African highlands. However, there is limited information on how the ‘Catena’ features could be used for fine tuning fertilizer recommendations. We initiated multiple on-farm replicated experiments in three wheat-growing districts (Endamohoni, Lemo and Worreilu) in the Ethiopian highlands in 2014, 2015 and 2016 to assess landscape positions affecting crop-nutrient responses, identify yield limiting nutrients across the ‘Catena’ (N, P, K, S and Zn) and quantify effects of landscape positions on resources use efficiency. We clustered farmlands across the ‘Catena’ (Hillslopes, Midslopes and Footslopes) based on land scape positions in the respective locations. Wheat yield was more strongly and significantly affected by landscape positions (P < 0.001) than by nutrient sources or rates. The crop response to fertilizers was 50 to 300% higher in foot slopes than in hillslopes, depending on locations and inputs levels. With increasing slope, there was a decrease in a crop fertilizer response due to a significant decrease in soil organic carbon, clay content and soil water content, with r2 of 0.95, 0.86 and 0.96, respectively. The difference in the crop response between landscape positions was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with higher rates of nutrient applications (>N92 P46) while differences between landscape positions diminish at lower rates. Yield benefits due to application of K was significant only in the dry years (P < 0.05), while there was hardly any yield benefit from the application of zinc and sulfur. The crop nitrogen recovery fraction and crop water productivity decreased with an increasing slope regardless of nutrient combinations. The results indicated that the landscape position could be considered as a proxy indicator for targeted fertilizer application, particularly in farms with undulating topographic features. Hillslopes are better served by the application of organic fertilizers along with conservation measures as applying higher rates of mineral fertilizer in hillslopes would rather increase the risk of downstream nutrient movement.
The current study examined the pattern of neurocognitive impairments in a community-recruited sample of clinical high-risk (CHR) participants and established relationships with psychosocial functioning.
CHR-participants (n = 108), participants who did not fulfil CHR-criteria (CHR-negatives) (n = 42) as well as a group of healthy controls (HCs) (n = 55) were recruited. CHR-status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Adult Version (SPI-A). The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Battery (BACS) as well as tests for emotion recognition, working memory and attention were administered. In addition, role and social functioning as well as premorbid adjustment were assessed.
CHR-participants were significantly impaired on the Symbol-Coding and Token-Motor task and showed a reduction in total BACS-scores. Moreover, CHR-participants were characterised by prolonged response times (RTs) in emotion recognition as well as by reductions in both social and role functioning, GAF and premorbid adjustments compared with HCs. Neurocognitive impairments in emotion recognition accuracy, emotion recognition RT, processing speed and motor speed were associated with several aspects of functioning explaining between 4% and 12% of the variance.
The current data obtained from a community sample of CHR-participants highlight the importance of dysfunctions in motor and processing speed and emotion recognition RT. Moreover, these deficits were found to be related to global, social and role functioning, suggesting that neurocognitive impairments are an important aspect of sub-threshold psychotic experiences and a possible target for therapeutic interventions.
Programming robotic assembly for industrial small-batch production is challenging; hence, it is vital to increase robustness and reduce development effort in order to achieve flexible robotic automation. A human who has made an assembly error will often simply undo the process until the error is undone and then restart the assembly. Conceptually, robots could do the same. This paper introduces a programming model that enables robot assembly programs to be executed in reverse. We investigate the challenges in running robot programs backwards and present a classification of reversibility characteristics. We demonstrate how temporarily switching the direction of program execution can be an efficient error recovery mechanism. Moreover, we demonstrate additional benefits arising from supporting reversibility in an assembly language, such as increased code reuse and automatically derived disassembly sequences. As a default approach to reversibility, we use program inversion and statement-level inversion of commands, but with a novel override option providing alternative sequences for asymmetric reverse actions. To efficiently program for this model, this paper introduces a new domain-specific language, SCP-RASQ (Simple C++ Reversible Assembly SeQuences). In initial experiments, where 200 consecutive assemblies of two industrial cases were performed, 18 of 22 errors were corrected automatically using only the trial-and-error capabilities that come from reverse execution.
Greek artists and architects were important social agents who played significant roles in the social, cultural, and economic life of the ancient Greek world. In Artists and Artistic Production in Ancient Greece, art historians, archaeologists, and historians explore the roles and impacts of artists and craftsmen in ancient Greek society. The contributing authors draw upon artistic, architectural, literary, epigraphical, and historical evidence to discuss a range of artists, architects, artistic media, and regions. They refer to historiography and modern theory, taking stock of the past while offering some new directions for future research. Incorporating a variety of methodological approaches and making use of often-neglected evidence, Artists and Artistic Production in Ancient Greece re-examines many long-held ideas and provides a deeper understanding of particular artists and architects, their works, and their social agency.
The structures, energies, and energy levels of a comprehensive set of simple intrinsic point defects in aluminum arsenide are predicted using density functional theory (DFT). The calculations incorporate explicit and rigorous treatment of charged supercell boundary conditions. The predicted defect energy levels, computed as total energy differences, do not suffer from the DFT band gap problem, spanning the experimental gap despite the Kohn-Sham eigenvalue gap being much smaller than experiment. Defects in AlAs exhibit a surprising complexity—with a greater range of charge states, bistabilities, and multiple negative-U systems—that would be impossible to resolve with experiment alone. The simulation results can be used to populate defect physics models in III-V semiconductor device simulations with reliable quantities in those cases where experimental data is lacking, as in AlAs.
Decline in social functioning occurs in individuals who later develop psychosis.
To investigate whether baseline differences in disability are present in those who do and those who do not make a transition to psychosis in a group clinically at high risk and whether disability is a risk factor for transition.
Prospective multicentre, naturalistic field study with an 18-month follow-up period on 245 help-seeking individuals clinically at high risk. Disability was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule of the World Health Organization (WHODAS–II).
At baseline, the transition group displayed significantly greater difficulties in making new friends (z =−3.40, P = 0.001), maintaining a friendship (z =−3.00, P = 0.003), dealing with people they do not know (z =−2.28, P = 0.023) and joining community activities (z =−2.0, P = 0.05) compared with the non-transition group. In Cox regression, difficulties in getting along with people significantly contributed to the prediction of transition to psychosis in our sample (β = 0.569, s.e. = 0.184, Wald = 9.548, P = 0.002, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.767, 95% CI 1.238–2.550).
Certain domains of social disability might contribute to the prediction of psychosis in a sample clinically at high risk.
Little bag silage (LBS) is seen as a low-cost alternative suitable for resource-poor smallholders to alleviate dry-season feed constraints. Within a research project carried out by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture and partners in Honduras, LBS was tested and its use encouraged during farmer training and field days. The present study highlights the most relevant technological and socio-economic potential and constraints of LBS. Surveys and experimental results revealed great vulnerability of plastic bags to pests, particularly rodents, accompanied by high spoilage losses. The main constraints to wider adoption include availability of i) suitable and affordable plastic bags, and ii) appropriate chopping equipment and storage facilities on smallholder farms. LBS proved to be useful and could play an important role in participatory research and extension activities, as a demonstration, experimentation and learning tool that can be used to get small-scale silage novices started with a low-risk technology.