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Lake settlements, particularly crannogs, pose several contradictions—visible yet inaccessible, widespread yet geographically restricted, persistent yet vulnerable. To further our understanding, we developed the integrated use of palaeolimnological (scanning XRF, pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids, Cladocera, microcharcoal, biogenic silica, SEM-EDS, stable-isotopes) and biomolecular (faecal stanols, bile acids, sedaDNA) analyses of crannog cores in south-west Scotland and Ireland. Both can be effective methods sets for revealing occupation chronologies and identifying on-crannog activities and practices. Strong results from sedaDNA and lipid biomarker analyses demonstrate probable on-site animal slaughter, food storage and possible feasting, suggesting multi-period, elite site associations, and the storage and protection of valuable resources.
The Upper Cretaceous Kanguk Formation of the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Islands, contains numerous diagenetically altered volcanic ash layers (bentonites). Eleven bentonites were sampled from an outcrop section on Ellesmere Island for U–Pb zircon secondary ion mass spectrometry dating and whole-rock geochemical analysis. Two distinct types of bentonite are identified from the geochemical data. Relatively thick (0.1 to 5 m) peralkaline rhyolitic to trachytic bentonites erupted in an intraplate tectonic setting. These occur throughout the upper Turonian to lower Campanian (c. 92–83 Ma) outcrop section and are likely associated with the alkaline phase of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. Two thinner (<5 cm) subalkaline dacitic to rhyolitic bentonites of late Turonian to early Coniacian age (c. 90–88 Ma) are also identified. The geochemistry of these bentonites is consistent with derivation from volcanoes within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The lack of nearby potential sources of subalkaline magmatism, together with the thinner bed thickness of the subalkaline bentonites and the small size of zircon phenocrysts therein (typically 50–80 μm in length) are consistent with a more distal source area. The zircon U–Pb age and whole-rock geochemistry of these two subalkaline bentonites correlate with an interval of intense volcanism in the Okhotsk–Chukotka Volcanic Belt, Russia. It is proposed that during late Turonian to early Coniacian times intense volcanism within the Okhotsk–Chukotka Volcanic Belt resulted in widespread volcanic ash dispersal across Arctic Alaska and Canada, reaching as far east as the Sverdrup Basin, more than 3000 km away.
To define the pathology in cases of non-Alzheimer primary degenerative dementia (non-AD PDD), we have studied autopsies from four medical centres accessioned in consecutive years since 1976. Neurochemical studies of the basal forebrain-cortical (BF-C) cholinergic system have been conducted in cases from which frozen tissue was available. Twenty-two cases (mean age 70 years, range 47-86) in which the history was consistent with PDD, but which did not meet anatomic criteria for AD, were selected. Approximately 70 cases of PDD, which were accessioned in the same years and met the anatomic criteria for AD, were excluded. The pathologic findings permitted a classification into six groups: Lewy body disease (LBD), 4 cases; Pick's disease, 6 cases; cortical degeneration with motor neuron disease (CDmnd), 2 cases; hippocampal and temporal lobe sclerosis, 3 cases; few or nonspecific abnormalities, 5 cases; other disorders, 2 cases. Our findings suggest that LBD and Pick's disease account for a large proportion of cases of non-AD PDD in the presenile age group, but that a large number of other disorders occasionally present as PDD. Careful examination of the motor systems, as well as cerebral structures relate' to cognitive function, is important in the neuropathologic evaluation. Lesions of the BF-C cholinergic system have been most consistent and severe in LBD, and have not been identified in CDmnd.
Community discourse about the moral status of animals is critical to the future of bioethics and, indeed, to the future of modern society. Thomasma and Loewy are to be commended for sharing thoughts and trying to attain some common ground. I am grateful to them for fostering discussion and allowing me to respond. I cannot endorse the negative tone of the end of their conversation, however. They end with serious concerns about the possibility of any agreement between themselves. Even though I perceive some moral differences between them, I do not believe that they are moral strangers. In this commentary I review the ways in which I agree and disagree with Thomasma and Loewy and conclude with some thoughts about the kind of broad ethical thinking we need to do to address our moral relationship to nonhuman, living creatures.
The global regulatory environment strongly affects the development of effective medications to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) (Whitehouse, 1998b). Since its inception in 1994, the International Working Group for Harmonization of Dementia Drug Guidelines (IWG) has been working to foster dialogue on dementia drug development among academics, regulators, industry representatives, and patients and their families. In this overview, I describe the IWG's mission, people, and recent activities (Whitehouse, 1998c), and its activities concerning BPSD in several regions throughout the world.
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by loss of cells and synapses in specific neural systems. The development of more effective therapies will depend on understanding the relationships between this pathology and the cognitive and behavioral impairments. In this review, focusing primarily on work in our laboratory, we will examine both classic and neuropeptide neurotransmitter systems and will discuss conceptual and methodological problems in relating clinical and biological measures.
Studies conducted at our Alzheimer Center in Cleveland, Ohio, along with those of other investigators, have documented that visual hallucinations occur with sufficient frequency in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias to warrant further investigation of their meaning and implications. The largest data set in which frequency of hallucinations among persons with Alzheimer's disease has been examined comes from a collaboration among the National Institute of Aging Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS), the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD), and the Case Western Reserve University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). As a part of this collaboration, we examined data from 556 patients with Alzheimer's disease treated at medical centers across the United States who had been rated using the CERAD Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia (BRSD). The BRSD is a comprehensive, informant-based tool that includes several questions concerning the frequency with which hallucinations and misperceptions were experienced during the month before the interview.
Van Rensselaer Potter was the first voice to utter the word
“bioethics,” yet he is too little appreciated by
the bioethics community. My expectations for my first visit
with Professor Van Rensselaer Potter were primed by conversations
with leaders and historians of the field of biomedical ethics,
including Warren Reich, Al Jonsen, and David Thomasma. When
mentioning my interest in environmental ethics and my concerns
for the current state of biomedical ethics, I was told that
I must meet Van. On my first visit to Madison, Wisconsin, Van
met me at the McArdle Laboratories for Cancer Research at the
University of Wisconsin, where he spent essentially his entire
academic career as a basic oncological researcher. He was dressed
informally and driving a rusting1984 Subaru station wagon with
a license plate that read YES ZPG. We spent this first portion
of our visit at the Institute where he is an Emeritus Professor
and has contributed to understanding cancer metabolism as
recognized by his election to the National Academy of Sciences.
However, Van felt most at home in his shack located outside
Madison. This country retreat included a rather primitive hut
surrounded by acres of property owned by the family. I felt
at the heart of Van's world when I sat in one of a pair
of inexpensive plastic outdoor chairs in a particularly secluded
part of the woods on the property, the place where Van himself
communed with nature.
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