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To study the impact of out-of-hours delivery on outcome for neonates with antenatally diagnosed transposition of the great arteries.
Tertiary paediatric cardiology centre (Yorkshire, United Kingdom), with co-located tertiary neonatal unit.
Neonates with antenatally diagnosed simple transposition of the great arteries delivered out-of-hours (Monday to Friday 17:00–08:00 and weekends) versus in-hours between 2015 and 2020.
The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included neurological morbidity, length of stay, and time to balloon atrial septostomy.
Of 51 neonates, 38 (75%) were delivered out-of-hours. All neonates born in the tertiary centre survived to discharge. Time to balloon atrial septostomy was slightly longer for out-of-hours deliveries compared to in-hours (median 130 versus 93 mins, p = 0.33). Neurological morbidity occurred for nine (24%) patients in the out-of-hours group and one (8%) in-hours (OR 3.72, 95% CI: 0.42–32.71, p = 0.24). Length of stay was also similar (18.5 versus 17.3 days, p = 0.59). Antenatal diagnosis of a restrictive atrial septum was associated with a lower initial pH (7.03 versus 7.13; CI: 0.03–0.17, p = 0.01), longer length of stay (22.6 versus 17.3 days; CI: 0.37–10.17, p = 0.04), and increased neurological morbidity (44% versus 14%; OR 4.80, CI 1.00–23.15, p = 0.05). A further three neonates were delivered in surrounding hospitals, with a mortality of 67% (versus 0 in tertiary centre; OR 172, CI 5-5371, p = 0.003).
Neonates with antenatally diagnosed transposition of the great arteries have similar outcomes when delivered out-of-hours versus in-hours. Antenatal diagnosis of restrictive atrial septum is a significant predictor of worse outcomes. In our region, delivery outside the tertiary cardiac centre had a significantly higher risk of mortality.
Mortality between stages 1 and 2 single-ventricle palliation is significant. Home-monitoring programmes are suggested to reduce mortality. Outcomes and risk factors for adverse outcomes for European programmes have not been published.
To evaluate the performance of a home-monitoring programme at a medium-sized United Kingdom centre with regards survival and compare performance with other home-monitoring programmes in the literature.
All fetal and postnatal diagnosis of a single ventricle were investigated with in-depth analysis of those undergoing stage 1 palliation and entered the home-monitoring programme between 2016 and 2020. The primary outcome was survival. Secondary outcomes included multiple parameters as potential predictors of death or adverse outcome.
Of 217 fetal single-ventricle diagnoses during the period 2016–2020, 50.2% progressed to live birth, 35.4% to stage 1 and 29.5% to stage 2. Seventy-four patients (including 10 with postnatal diagnosis) entered the home-monitoring programme with six deaths making home-monitoring programme mortality 8.1%. Risk factors for death were the hybrid procedure as the only primary procedure (OR 33.0, p < 0.01), impaired cardiac function (OR 10.3, p < 0.025), Asian ethnicity (OR 9.3, p < 0.025), lower mean birth-weight (2.69 kg versus 3.31 kg, p < 0.01), and lower mean weight centiles during interstage follow-up (mean centiles of 3.1 versus 10.8, p < 0.01)
Survival in the home-monitoring programme is comparable with other home-monitoring programmes in the literature. Hybrid procedure, cardiac dysfunction, sub-optimal weight gain, and Asian ethnicity were significant risk factors for death. Home-monitoring programmes should continue to raise awareness of these factors and seek solutions to mitigate adverse events. Future work to generalise home-monitoring programme and single-ventricle fetus to stage 2 outcomes in the United Kingdom will require multi-centre collaboration.
Hypertension following primary coarctation repair affects up to a third of subjects. A number of studies suggest that future hypertension risk is reduced if primary repair is performed at a younger age.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of future medical treatment for hypertension depending on age of primary coarctation repair.
This study was carried out at a tertiary paediatric cardiology referral centre. Retrospective database evaluation of children aged <16 years undergoing primary surgical coarctation repair between October, 2005 and October, 2014 was carried out. Patients with complex heart diseases were excluded. The following age groups were considered: neonate (⩽28 days), infant (>28 days and ⩽12 months), and children (>12 months). Main outcome measure is the need for long-term anti-hypertensive medication. The risk for re-coarctation was also evaluated.
A total of 87 patients were analysed: 60 neonates, 17 infants, 10 children. Among them, 6.7% neonates, 29.4% infants, and 40% children required long-term anti-hypertensive medications. Group differences were statistically significant (p=0.004). After adjustment for type of repair, the risk of long-term anti-hypertensive therapy was 4.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2–16.9, p=0.025) and 10.5 times (95% confidence interval 2.6–42.3, p=0.001) higher if primary repair was carried out in infancy and childhood, respectively, compared with neonates. Among all, 13 patients developed re-coarctation: 21.7% in the neonatal group, 5.9% in the infant group, and 20% in the child group. We could not demonstrate a significant difference between these proportions or calculate a reliable risk for developing re-coarctation.
Risk of medical treatment for hypertension was lowest when primary repair was carried out during the neonatal period, rising 10-fold if first operated on as a child. Knowing the likelihood of hypertension development depending on age of primary repair is useful for long-term surveillance and counselling.
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