Several independent groups have observed optical cooling by means of anti-Stokes luminescence in condensed media. The most promising materials are grouped into two categories: ion-doped glasses and organic dye solutions. It is this latter group that we focus our efforts on. Recent studies by our group show that irradiating a solution of rhodamine 101 in the long wavelength wing of the absorption spectrum results in the observation of optical cooling. To improve upon the initial observation of a few degree drop in temperature requires a better understanding of the conditions and phenomena leading to anti-Stokes luminescence in dye solutions. We develop a thermal lensing experiment to obtain fluorescence quantum yields of various dye solutions. The importance of concentration, choice of solvent, deuteration, and acidification are discussed.