To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common congenital malformations. Patients with CHD have a higher morbidity and mortality rate and are at greater risk for infectious diseases. The risk might even be higher if complex CHD occurs and if CHD is associated with additional co-morbidities. Therefore, immunisations in these children are essential.
Materials and Methods:
Individuals were recruited at the outpatient centre of the Department of Congenital Heart Defects and Pediatric Cardiology at the German Heart Center Munich in the time between February 2016 and February 2017. Included were children between 23 months and 17 years and a diagnosis of CHD. The vaccination certificate aimed to assess the immunization status.
In total, 657 children with CHD were included and analysed. Regarding primary immunisation, only 34 % (n = 221) of the children reached the complete vaccination status within the allowed catch-up time. Among these primary immunisation rates, vaccinations against Hepatitis B, Meningococci, Varicella and Pneumococci were found to have the lowest coverage with all being below 80%. The vaccination rate was partly influenced by the previously performed number of surgeries but not by the diagnosis of specific genetic diseases. At the age of school entry, the immunisation rate in children with CHD was also lower than in the comparable healthy population.
The vaccination coverage rate in children with CHD is lower than in comparable healthy children, although this is a vulnerable patient group. Further education of parents and treating physicians of children with CHD regarding vaccination is still needed.
Despite evidence for the general effectiveness of psychological therapies, there exists substantial heterogeneity in patient outcomes. We aimed to identify factors associated with baseline severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, rate of symptomatic change over the course of therapy, and symptomatic recovery in a primary mental health care setting.
Using data from a service evaluation involving 35 527 patients in England's psychological and wellbeing [Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT)] services, we applied latent growth models to explore which routinely-collected sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables were associated with baseline symptom severity and rate of symptomatic change. We used a multilevel logit model to determine variables associated with symptomatic recovery.
Being female, younger, more functionally impaired, and more socioeconomically disadvantaged was associated with higher baseline severity of both depression and anxiety symptoms. Being older, less functionally impaired, and having more severe baseline symptomatology was associated with more rapid improvement of both depression and anxiety symptoms (male gender and greater socioeconomic disadvantage were further associated with rate of change for depression only). Therapy intensity and appointment frequency seemed to have no correlation with rate of symptomatic improvement. Patients with lower baseline symptom severity, less functional impairment, and older age had a greater likelihood of achieving symptomatic recovery (as defined by IAPT criteria).
We must continue to investigate how best to tailor psychotherapeutic interventions to fit patients’ needs. Patients who begin therapy with more severe depression and/or anxiety symptoms and poorer functioning merit special attention, as these characteristics may negatively impact recovery.
This article explores the connection between two theses: the principle of conditional excluded middle for the counterfactual conditional, and the claim that it is a contingent matter which (coarse grained) propositions there are. Both theses enjoy wide support, and have been defended at length by Robert Stalnaker. We will argue that, given plausible background assumptions, these two principles are incompatible, provided that conditional excluded middle is understood in a certain modalized way. We then show that some (although not all) arguments for conditional excluded middle can in fact be extended to motivate this modalized version of the principle.
Robert Stalnaker has recently advocated propositional contingentism, the claim that it is contingent what propositions there are. He has proposed a philosophical theory of contingency in what propositions there are and sketched a possible worlds model theory for it. In this paper, such models are used to interpret two propositional modal languages: one containing an existential propositional quantifier, and one containing an existential propositional operator. It is shown that the resulting logic containing an existential quantifier is not recursively axiomatizable, as it is recursively isomorphic to second-order logic, and a natural candidate axiomatization for the resulting logic containing an existential operator is shown to be incomplete.
This article introduces the French philosopher Jean-Luc Nancy to theologians by placing him in critical dialogue with Karl Rahner. It examines how Nancy's deconstruction of Christianity accuses Western reason, including Christianity, of forgetting the body and supporting an ethos of disembodiment. Nancy proposes a new opening of reason (déclosion, “dis-closure”) and a corresponding praxis (“adoration”). This reason and praxis involve an exit from Christianity. Rahnerian essays on matter, spirit, and sacramentality demonstrate that while Christianity has, historically, fallen prey to the pathologies Nancy identifies, it also has thought in terms of something like dis-closed reason and has practiced something like “adoration.” While Nancy's insistence on the need for an exit from Christianity is not necessarily well posed, his deconstruction of Christianity can help Christian theologians as they develop thinking that supports an ethos sensitive to the body—or that keeps the body's sense open.
A formal result is proved which is used in Juhani Yli-Vakkuri's ‘Epistemicism and Modality’ to argue that certain two-dimensional possible world models are inadequate for a language with operators for ‘necessarily’, ‘actually’, and ‘definitely’.
I consider the first-order modal logic which counts as valid those sentences which are true on every interpretation of the non-logical constants. Based on the assumptions that it is necessary what individuals there are and that it is necessary which propositions are necessary, Timothy Williamson has tentatively suggested an argument for the claim that this logic is determined by a possible world structure consisting of an infinite set of individuals and an infinite set of worlds. He notes that only the cardinalities of these sets matters, and that not all pairs of infinite sets determine the same logic. I use so-called two-cardinal theorems from model theory to investigate the space of logics and consequence relations determined by pairs of infinite sets, and show how to eliminate the assumption that worlds are individuals from Williamson's argument.
In this work, we propose a model to quantify strain induced conductor
discontinuities based on measuring electrical resistance while applying tensile
strain to metal-polymer systems. Under strain, changing conductor geometry and
induced conductor discontinuity increase electrical resistance. On Kapton
substrates strained to ε = .07, evaporated gold films did not
deform and resistance increase was only caused by geometry change. Conversely,
discontinuity caused 31% and 72% of the resistance increase in evaporated and
printed silver films at the same strain. On PDMS substrates, the same magnitude
of discontinuity, causing 31% of the resistance increase, occurred at only
ε = .024 in evaporated silver films. At the same strain,
discontinuity caused 86% of the resistance increase in evaporated gold films.
Printed silver films were inelastic. The results suggest that traditional
fabrication techniques may be more suitable to flexible hybrid electronics
applications than additively manufactured conductors.
Cleanliness is a prerequisite for obtaining economically feasible yield levels in the semiconductor industry. For the next generation of lithographic equipment, EUV lithography, the size of yield-loss inducing particles for the masks will be smaller than 20 nm. Consequently, equipment for handling EUV masks should not add particles larger than 20 nm. Detection methods for 20 nm particles on large area surfaces are needed to qualify the equipment for cleanliness. Detection of 20 nm particles is extremely challenging, not only because of the particle size, but also because of the large surface area and limited available time.
In 2002 TNO developed the RapidNano, a platform that is capable of detecting nanoparticles on flat substrates. Over the last decade, the smallest detectable particle size was decreased while the inspection rate was increased. This effort has led to a stable and affordable detection platform that is capable of inspecting the full surface of a mask blank.
The core of RapidNano is a dark-field imaging technique. Every substrate type has a typical background characteristic, which strongly affects the size of the smallest detectable particle. The noise level is induced by the speckle generated by the surface roughness of the mask. The signal-to-noise ratio can be improved by illuminating the inspection area from nine different angles. This improvement was first shown on test bench level and then applied in the RapidNano3. The RapidNano3 is capable of detecting 42nm latex sphere equivalents (and larger) on silicon surfaces. RapidNano4, the next generation, will use 193 nm light and the same nine angle illumination mode. Camera sensitivity and available laser power determine the achievable throughput. Therefore, special care was given to the optical design, particularly the optical path. With RapidNano4, TNO will push the detection limit of defects on EUV blanks to below 20nm.
According to propositional contingentism, it is contingent what propositions there are. This paper presents two ways of modeling contingency in what propositions there are using two classes of possible worlds models. The two classes of models are shown to be equivalent as models of contingency in what propositions there are, although they differ as to which other aspects of reality they represent. These constructions are based on recent work by Robert Stalnaker; the aim of this paper is to explain, expand, and, in one aspect, correct Stalnaker’s discussion.
This paper is concerned with a propositional modal logic with operators for necessity, actuality and apriority. The logic is characterized by a class of relational structures defined according to ideas of epistemic two-dimensional semantics, and can therefore be seen as formalizing the relations between necessity, actuality and apriority according to epistemic two-dimensional semantics. We can ask whether this logic is correct, in the sense that its theorems are all and only the informally valid formulas. This paper gives outlines of two arguments that jointly show that this is the case. The first is intended to show that the logic is informally sound, in the sense that all of its theorems are informally valid. The second is intended to show that it is informally complete, in the sense that all informal validities are among its theorems. In order to give these arguments, a number of independently interesting results concerning the logic are proven. In particular, the soundness and completeness of two proof systems with respect to the semantics is proven (Theorems 2.11 and 2.15), as well as a normal form theorem (Theorem 3.2), an elimination theorem for the actuality operator (Corollary 3.6), and the decidability of the logic (Corollary 3.7). It turns out that the logic invalidates a plausible principle concerning the interaction of apriority and necessity; consequently, a variant semantics is briefly explored on which this principle is valid. The paper concludes by assessing the implications of these results for epistemic two-dimensional semantics.
Because of the large home range requirements of wide-ranging carnivores, protected areas are often too small to maintain large populations. Consequently these carnivores regularly move outside protected areas, where they are likely to be exposed to anthropogenic mortality. We used data from 15 packs of radio-collared African wild dogs Lycaon pictus to examine the level of anthropogenic mortality African wild dogs experience around Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, and tried to determine whether the buffer zone outside the Park acts as an ‘ecological trap’. Over time, study packs moved their territories closer to or beyond the Park border. With the movement of territories into the buffer zone outside the Park, African wild dogs experienced an increasing level of anthropogenic mortality. Although larger litters were born outside the Park, mortality exceeded natality. Densities of the African wild dog in the study area were low and territories for given pack sizes were smaller outside the Park. Hence, the movement of packs outside the Park does not appear to be density related and the buffer zone is therefore unlikely to function as a classic sink. Favourable ecological conditions indicate that the buffer zone outside the Park is likely to serve as an ecological trap, with fitness-enhancing factors attracting African wild dogs outside the Park, where they are incapable of perceiving the higher mortality risk associated with mostly indirect anthropogenic causes. As far as we know this is one of the first studies describing an ecological trap for mammals.
The work takes advantage of a newly developed measurement system which enables to investigate the thermodynamic properties of thin films including battery layer sequences. This technique, Thin-Film Calorimetry (TFC), is based on the detection of resonance frequency shifts of bulk acoustic wave resonators. Thin films with a thickness of several micrometers of the material of interest are deposited on the resonators. By measuring the temperature dependent shift of the resonance frequency, the device is working as a precise temperature sensor. The production or consumption of latent heat by the active layer(s) results in temperature fluctuations with respect to the furnace where the sensor is placed. Those information enable to extract the temperature and time dependence of phase transformations as well as the associated enthalpies. To cover a temperature range from -20 to 900 °C high-temperature stable piezoelectric resonators made of langasite crystals (La3Ga5SiO14) are applied.
Initially, metallic layers of tin and aluminum are used to test and verify this approach. The temperatures and enthalpies of solid-liquid as well as of solid-solid phase transformation are observed in the correct manner. Further, the thermodynamic data of the battery materials Li(Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05)O2-δ (NCA) and LiMn2O4-δ (LMO) obtained by TFC are determined and discussed. Both cathode materials are amorphous after deposition and show crystallization during heating at 460 °C (NCA) and 600 °C (LMO). The associated enthalpies are 5.3 kJ/mol (55 J/g) and 17.3 kJ/mol (96 J/g), respectively.
The electrical and electromechanical properties of lithium niobate single crystals are investigated at high-temperatures. The total electrical conductivity is determined as a function of temperature by impedance spectroscopy for Z-cut crystals with different lithium content. For stoichiometric lithium niobate (sLN) the activation energy is found to be (1.49 ± 0.03) eV in the temperature range from 500 to 900 °C.
Further, the piezoelectric properties (resonance frequency, Q-factor) of X-cut lithium niobate crystals are determined at high temperatures for samples with compositions ranging from congruent to stoichiometric and, subsequently, compared to the conductivity data in order to identify loss contributions.
In this context, the high-temperature stability is examined for X- and Z-cut samples with compositions ranging from congruent to stoichiometric. Series of samples with and without additional alumina protection layers are annealed in air at 900 °C for approximately 50 h. Subsequently, depth profiles are measured by SNMS. In all cases, no lithium loss is observed and, therefore, a high-temperature stability of sLN for at least 50 h at 900 °C can be assumed in ambient air.
Further, the influence of protective layers with different thicknesses and compositions is investigated for X- and Z-cut samples. A lithium loss in the first 300 nm is observed for the Z-cut samples, while the X-cut samples show a behavior dependent on the type of protecting layer.
GALEV evolutionary synthesis models describe the evolution of stellar populations in general, of star clusters as well as of galaxies, both in terms of resolved stellar populations and of integrated light properties over cosmological timescales of >13 Gyr from the onset of star formation shortly after the Big Bang until today. A new web-interface now allows to run customized GALEV models with user-defined parameters. This web-interface, all data, and many more features to come, can be found at http://www.galev.org.
AFTER THE REBELLION OF 1837–1838 was crushed, the signs of a tendency towards defense and retreat in French-Canadian society increased. After 1791, following the division into a western Upper Canada and an (initially) almost exclusively francophone Lower Canada (“Bas Canada”) in the East, the “Canadiens” — the term was not changed to “Canadiens français” until after the middle of the nineteenth century — had attempted a strategy of cooperation and rivalry with their anglophone partner, trying first to exhaust all possibilities within the parliamentary system. The failure of the liberal-patriotic rebellion and the political signals and measures coming from London in the wake of this defeat led to a conflict between resigned willingness to conform on the one hand and a need for “national” affirmation on the other, a conflict that would leave its mark on the cultural life of the francophone population for a long time to come. To be sure, the politics of assimilation — initiated by Lord Durham's report (1839) — failed and were replaced by the federal government's recognition of the francophones (“accommodation”). Nevertheless, the British North America Act of 1867 continued to feed ethnically motivated fears as well as economically motivated feelings of frustration in the face of the “Anglais”-dominated economy.
The constitution of the Dominion of Canada and the inclusion and/or annexation of new territories in the West and East were accomplished without the participation of the French Canadians, who had been reduced to the status of provincials, and in part directly against their wishes.