To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is global interest in the reconfiguration of community mental health services, including primary care, to improve clinical and cost effectiveness.
This study seeks to describe patterns of service use, continuity of care, health risks, physical healthcare monitoring and the balance between primary and secondary mental healthcare for people with severe mental illness in receipt of secondary mental healthcare in the UK.
We conducted an epidemiological medical records review in three UK sites. We identified 297 cases randomly selected from the three participating mental health services. Data were manually extracted from electronic patient medical records from both secondary and primary care, for a 2-year period (2012–2014). Continuous data were summarised by mean and s.d. or median and interquartile range (IQR). Categorical data were summarised as percentages.
The majority of care was from secondary care practitioners: of the 18 210 direct contacts recorded, 76% were from secondary care (median, 36.5; IQR, 14–68) and 24% were from primary care (median, 10; IQR, 5–20). There was evidence of poor longitudinal continuity: in primary care, 31% of people had poor longitudinal continuity (Modified Modified Continuity Index ≤0.5), and 43% had a single named care coordinator in secondary care services over the 2 years.
The study indicates scope for improvement in supporting mental health service delivery in primary care. Greater knowledge of how care is organised presents an opportunity to ensure some rebalancing of the care that all people with severe mental illness receive, when they need it. A future publication will examine differences between the three sites that participated in this study.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakening. Adverse impacts on human society include increasing water shortages and impacts on mental health. Options for solutions emerge from rethinking economic models, rights-based litigation, strengthened governance systems and a new social contract. The disruption caused by COVID-19 could be seized as an opportunity for positive change, directing economic stimulus towards sustainable investments.
A synthesis is made of ten fields within climate science where there have been significant advances since mid-2019, through an expert elicitation process with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) a better understanding of equilibrium climate sensitivity; (2) abrupt thaw as an accelerator of carbon release from permafrost; (3) changes to global and regional land carbon sinks; (4) impacts of climate change on water crises, including equity perspectives; (5) adverse effects on mental health from climate change; (6) immediate effects on climate of the COVID-19 pandemic and requirements for recovery packages to deliver on the Paris Agreement; (7) suggested long-term changes to governance and a social contract to address climate change, learning from the current pandemic, (8) updated positive cost–benefit ratio and new perspectives on the potential for green growth in the short- and long-term perspective; (9) urban electrification as a strategy to move towards low-carbon energy systems and (10) rights-based litigation as an increasingly important method to address climate change, with recent clarifications on the legal standing and representation of future generations.
Social media summary
Stronger permafrost thaw, COVID-19 effects and growing mental health impacts among highlights of latest climate science.
The present volume, a festschrift for Professor A.J. (Tony) Pollard, owes its existence to an initiative by one of his former postgraduate students, Professor Anne Curry. The essays collected here, offered by three generations of his friends and pupils, celebrate Tony's outstanding career and pay tribute to his scholarship and enduring influence in furthering our understanding of late medieval England and France. Drawing inspiration from his own research interests and writing, which illuminate the military, political and social interactions of the period, they focus on three main themes: the contrasting styles of governance adopted by English monarchs from Richard II to Henry VII; the differing responses to civil conflict revealed in a variety of localities; and the lives of men recruited to fight overseas during the Hundred Years’ War and beyond the border with Scotland. These topics take us across England from the far north to the Channel, to London, the south-west and the Welsh lordship of Gower, while on the way also examining how townsmen resisted taxation, the gentry administered their estates and the western marches were ruled.
We are grateful to all the contributors for their help in the volume's production, and we owe particular thanks to Anne Curry for her staunch support and guidance, and to Tony's wife Sandra, whose excavations in files and bookshelves enabled the compilation of a comprehensive bibliography of his published works.
Through diversity of composition, sequence, and interfacial structure, hybrid materials greatly expand the palette of materials available to access novel functionality. The NSF Division of Materials Research recently supported a workshop (October 17–18, 2019) aiming to (1) identify fundamental questions and potential solutions common to multiple disciplines within the hybrid materials community; (2) initiate interfield collaborations between hybrid materials researchers; and (3) raise awareness in the wider community about experimental toolsets, simulation capabilities, and shared facilities that can accelerate this research. This article reports on the outcomes of the workshop as a basis for cross-community discussion. The interdisciplinary challenges and opportunities are presented, and followed with a discussion of current areas of progress in subdisciplines including hybrid synthesis, functional surfaces, and functional interfaces.
Microvascular health is a main determinant of coronary blood flow reserve and myocardial vascular resistance. Extracardiac capillary abnormality has been reported in subjects at increased coronary heart disease risk, such as prehypertension, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. We have reported cardiovascular dysfunction in a cohort of maternal nutrient reduction (MNR)-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) baboon offspring. Here we test the hypothesis that there is oral capillary rarefaction associated with MNR-induced IUGR. Capillary density was quantified using in vivo high-power capillaroscopy on seven middle-aged (~10.7 yr; human equivalent ~40 yr) male IUGR baboons and seven male age-matched controls in the lateral buccal and inferior labial mucosa. While no difference was found between groups in either area by fraction area or optical density for these vascular beds derived from fetal preductal vessels, further studies are needed on post-ductal vascular beds, retina, and function.
As part of an on-going study of radio transients in Epoch 1 (2017–2019) of the Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS), we have discovered a sample of 0.2 < z < 3.2 active galactic nuclei (AGN) selected in the optical/infrared that have recently brightened dramatically in the radio. These sources would have previously been classified as radio-quiet based on upper limits from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-centimeters (FIRST; 1993-2011) survey; however, they are now consistent with radio-loud quasars. We present a quasi-simultaneous, multi-band (1–18 GHz) VLA follow-up campaign of our sample of AGN with extreme radio variability. We conclude that the radio properties are most consistent with AGN that have recently launched jets within the past few decades, potentially making them among the youngest radio AGN known.
The common culture of medieval Europe was derived from two main sources: the shared inheritance of the Roman classical past and the international character of the Western Church. Law was a major element in both these forces shaping European culture. This included civil law, the law of the ancient Roman Empire. It survived the Empire’s political collapse in the West through its codification in the Empire’s remaining eastern half under Emperor Justinian in the early sixth century. Only parts of this codification were known in the early medieval West, but it was rediscovered there in its entirety by the twelfth century. It became a subject of study in the emerging universities of medieval Europe, and this stimulated its growing international influence. It was an increasingly important source of ideas and rules for other medieval legal systems, notably canon law, the law of the Western Church. Canon law also had a long tradition going back to late antiquity, and the twelfth century was likewise decisive to its international reach and impact. No single collection of canon law enjoyed universal recognition comparable to Justinian’s codification till the appearance of Gratian’s Decretum in c. 1140. This canonical collection was rapidly adopted as the standard textbook for teaching canon law, which emerged as a subject of study alongside civil law in Western universities from the mid-twelfth century. Canon and civil law would remain the only law studied in medieval universities, but their pan-European significance was not limited to the classroom. From the twelfth century the Western Church developed an international system of courts to settle disputes and prosecute crimes under its jurisdiction in accordance with canon law. Civil law also influenced legal practice in these courts since from the late twelfth century it provided the basis for the so-called ‘Romano-canonical’ procedure followed in them. Canon and civil law thus touched people’s lives across later medieval Europe, not least since church courts exercised jurisdiction over major aspects of daily life, notably marriage.
Abstract This chapter discusses the following themes: i) The complex motivating factors behind the globalization of Japanese new religious movements (JNRMs). Motivational factors changed over time; those of the pre-World War II era differing substantially from those of the postwar period to the present. ii) The aims/goals of globalization. These again changed over time. iii) Marketing strategies of the globalization era. In some cases a Japanese blueprint was/is followed, in others situational logic and reflexive modes of syncretism greatly influenced the making of these strategies. iv) The issue of sustainability, which arises for many reasons, including the principle of permitting multiple memberships which movements have adopted, some reluctantly like Sōka Gakkai. Furthermore, many JNRMs lack important instruments for the transmission of their teachings and values, such as rites of passage, and institutions such as schools, clinics, hospitals and leisure facilities on which socially integrated and dynamic communities are built. v) The influence of JNRMs on the course, form and content of the process of globalization.
Keywords: Japanese new religious movements, motivation, marketing strategies, syncretism, Sekai Kyūsei Kyō, jōrei, sustainability
The multi-directional face of modern globalization
Globalization is envisioned here as multi-directional. For some time now globalization in its various forms, including its economic, cultural and religious forms (Clarke 2000), has been moving in all directions perhaps most noticeably from East to West, rather than from the West to the rest of the world, as was once largely the case. Some have argued this is profoundly modifying the ethos and worldview of the latter (Campbell 1999) and, it may be added, the way we think of and define religion.
Moreover, in the contemporary world the boundaries of religions, notwithstanding the attempts made by their officials and spokespersons in the past decade to police them more efficiently, are noticeably much more porous than was the case only 50 years ago. This change is due as much as anything else to the developments in information technology and communications, large scale economic migration and the new forms of religious pluralism that have emerged as a result of these developments. Thus, although the labels Western/Occidental and Eastern/Oriental, or African or Middle Eastern are still sometimes applied to religions, these labels are becoming increasingly obsolete.
Objectives: This study examined the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on sentence and word comprehension in healthy adults. Methods: Healthy adult participants, aged between 19 and 30 years, received either a-tDCS over the left inferior frontal gyrus (n=18) or sham stimulation (n=18). Participants completed sentence comprehension and word comprehension tasks before and during stimulation. Accuracy and reaction times (RTs) were recorded as participants completed both tasks. Results: a-tDCS was found to significantly decrease RT on the sentence comprehension task compared to baseline. There was no change in RT following sham stimulation. a-tDCS was not found to have a significant effect on accuracy. Also, a-tDCS did not affect accuracy or RTs on the word comprehension task. Conclusions: The study provides evidence that non-invasive anodal electrical stimulation can modulate sentence comprehension in healthy adults, at least compared to their baseline performance. (JINS, 2019, 25, 331–335)
We built an app to help clients of food pantries. The app offers vegetable-based recipes, food tips and no-cost strategies for making mealtimes healthier and for bargain-conscious grocery shopping, among other themes. Users customize materials to meet their own preferences. The app, available in English and Spanish, has been tested in a randomized field trial.
A randomized controlled trial with repeated measures across 10 weeks.
Clients of fifteen community food pantry distributions in Los Angeles County, USA.
Distributions were randomized to control and experimental conditions, and 289 household cooks and one of their 9–14-year-old children were enrolled as participants. Experimental dyads were given a smartphone with our app and a phone use-plan, then trained to use the app. ‘Test vegetables’ were added to the foods that both control and experimental participants received at their pantries.
After 3–4 weeks of additional ‘test vegetables’, cooks at experimental pantries had made 38 % more preparations with these items than control cooks (P = 0·03). Ten weeks following baseline, experimental pantries also scored greater gains in using a wider assortment of vegetables than control pantries (P = 0·003). Use of the app increased between mid-experiment and final measurement (P = 0·0001).
The app appears to encourage household cooks to try new preparation methods and widen their incorporation of vegetables into family diets. Further research is needed to identify specific app features that contributed most to outcomes and to test ways in which to disseminate the app widely.