To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Populism challenges our democracies. And populists in governments attempt to transform public administration systems in manifold illiberal ways. This chapter outlines an analytical frame for systematic comparative research on determining how populists attempt to convert public bureaucracies, what are their motivations, and what are their chances of succeeding. It bridges different strands of scholarship that have remained rather insulated so far. It complements the debate on system transformation and democracy systematically with administrative aspects. The chapter thus offers a path to integrate public administration scholarship in system transformation research by eliciting the role of bureaucracies in reform projects of populist governments.
The complex relationship between populist governments and their bureaucratic apparatus constituted the center of the theoretical and empirical analyses of this book. The concluding chapter synthesises the comparative insights form the chapters and assesses the validity of the theoretical claims of the introduction. It warns that populists in government are not condemned to fail. Populism may well get entrenched in individual political systems. Public administration has a warden role: namely, identifying threats to liberal society and our democratic systems.
Liberal democracy is at risk. Its hallmark institutions – political pluralism, separation of powers, and rule of law—are coming under pressure, as authoritarian sentiment is growing around the globe. While liberal-democratic backsliding features prominently in social science scholarship, especially the branches concerned with political parties and political behavior, public administration research lags behind. However, without considering illiberal approaches towards the executive, efforts of actual and aspiring authoritarians remain only partly understood. State bureaucracies are, after all, important instruments of power. This timely and important volume addresses the administrative implications of liberal-democratic backsliding. It studies public administrations as objects and subjects in the context of illiberal dynamics. For this purpose, the volume brings together an international group of scholars to analyze authoritarian tendencies in several countries. The contributions combine theoretical with empirical work, providing the first comparative perspective on an overlooked aspect of one of the most important contemporary political trends.
The study aimed to estimate vitamin D intake and plasma/serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations, investigate determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations and compare two 25(OH)D assays. We conducted two nationwide cross-sectional studies in Sweden with 206 school children aged 10–12 years and 1797 adults aged 18–80 years (n 268 provided blood samples). A web-based dietary record was used to assess dietary intake. Plasma/serum 25(OH)D was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and immunoassay in adults and LC-MS/MS in children. Most participants reported a vitamin D intake below the average requirement (AR), 16 % of children and 33 % of adults met the AR (7⋅5 μg). In adults, plasma 25(OH)D below 30 and 50 nmol/l were found in 1 and 18 % of participants during the summer period and in 9 and 40 % of participants during the winter period, respectively. In children, serum 25(OH)D below 30 and 50 nmol/l were found in 5 and 42 % of participants (samples collected March–May), respectively. Higher 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with the summer season, vacations in sunny locations (adults), and dietary intake of vitamin D and use of vitamin D supplements, while lower concentrations were associated with a higher BMI and an origin outside of Europe. Concentrations of 25(OH)D were lower using the immunoassay than with the LC-MS assay, but associations with dietary factors and seasonal variability were similar. In conclusion, vitamin D intake was lower than the AR, especially in children. The 25(OH)D concentrations were low in many participants, but few participants had a concentration below 30 nmol/l.
We analyse the distribution of vowel laxness and stress alternations in Slovenian nouns (for example in the nominative and genitive forms of the masculine noun [ˈjɛzik ~ jeˈzika] ‘tongue’), showing that stress shifts away from mid lax vowels in initial syllables. A stress shift of this sort is predicted by positional faithfulness (Beckman 1997). We show that this prediction is correct, contra McCarthy (2007, 2010) and Jesney (2011). The productivity of the pattern is confirmed in a large-scale nonce-word task. Stress shift in Slovenian is a result of the markedness of mid lax vowels and, perhaps counterintuitively, faithfulness to laxness in initial stressed position.
Dormant states of organisms are easier to store than the living state because they tolerate larger variations in temperature, light, storage space etc., making them attractive for laboratory culture stocks and also for experiments under special circumstances, especially space flight experiments. Like several other organisms, Euglena gracilis is capable of forming desiccation tolerant resting states in order to survive periods of unfavourable environmental conditions. In earlier experiments it was found that dormant Euglena cells must not become completely desiccated. Some residual moisture is required to ensure recovery of the resting states. To analyse the water demand in recovery of Euglena resting states, cells were transferred to a defined amount of cotton wool (0.5 g). Subsequently different volumes of medium (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10 and 20 ml) were added in order to supply humidity; a control was set up without additional liquid. Samples were sealed in transparent 50 ml falcon tubes and stored for 9 months under three different conditions:
• Constant low light conditions in a culture chamber at 20°C,
• In a black box, illuminated with short light emitting diode-light pulses provided by joule thieves and
• In darkness in a black box.
After 9 months, cells were transferred to fresh medium and cell number, photosynthetic efficiency and movement behavior was monitored over 3 weeks. It was found that cells recovered under all conditions except in the control, where no medium was supplied. Transcription levels of 21 genes were analysed with a Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. One hour after rehydration five of these genes were found to be up-regulated: ubiquitin, heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90, the calcium-sensor protein frequenin and a distinct protein kinase, which is involved in gravitaxis. The results indicate a transient general stress response of the cells.
To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) colonizing in pediatric refugees admitted to a University Children Hospital in Germany.
Retrospective observational study.
General pediatric and pediatric surgery units.
In Germany, recommendations for MDRO screening of pediatric refugees were recently published. According to these and institutional recommendations, all hospitalized pediatric refugees were screened for MDROs between October 2015 and March 2016.
Using electronic surveillance data, we performed a chart review to identify the prevalence of MDROs among and the clinical diagnoses of pediatric refugees.
Among 325 patients hospitalized for various causes, most frequently gastroenteritis (30.9%), MDROs were detected in 33.8%. Most of these patients were colonized with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria (113 isolates), mostly 2MRGN/ESBL (87 isolates); some patients were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 22 isolates); and 1 patient was colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Among 110 refugee patients, we detected single colonization with an MDRO in 84 patients (76.4%), co-colonization with 2 pathogens in 23 patients (20.9%), and triple colonization in 3 patients (2.7%). However, infections with MDROs occurred in only 3.6% of pediatric refugees. The peak of positive MDRO screening results in 2015 correlated with an increased hospitalization rate.
Implementation of infection control measures among pediatric refugees is challenging. Due to the high frequency of MDROs in these patients, current screening, isolation, and treatment strategies may have to be adapted.
Infectious diseases impair Se metabolism, and low Se status is associated with mortality risk in adults with critical disease. The Se status of neonates is poorly characterised, and a potential impact of connatal infection is unknown. We hypothesised that an infection negatively affects the Se status of neonates. We conducted an observational case–control study at three intensive care units at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Plasma samples were collected from forty-four neonates. On the basis of clinical signs for bacterial infection and concentrations of IL-6 or C-reactive protein, neonates were classified into control (n 23) and infected (n 21) groups. Plasma Se and selenoprotein P (SePP) concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence and ELISA, respectively, at day of birth (day 1) and 48 h later (day 3). Se and SePP showed a positive correlation in both groups of neonates. Se concentrations indicative of Se deficit in adults (<20 µg/l) were observed in four infected neonates and one control subject, and three infected neonates had very low SePP concentrations (<0·5 mg/l). The univariate analysis revealed a significant difference in Se and SePP concentrations between the groups. Both parameters correlated inversely to IL-6 in neonates with severe inflammation (IL-6>500 ng/l). During antibiotic therapy, SePP increased significantly from day 1 (1·03 (sd 0·10) mg/l) to day 3 (1·34 (sd 0·10) mg/l), indicative of improved hepatic Se metabolism. We conclude that both Se and SePP are suitable biomarkers for assessing Se status in neonates and for identifying subjects at risk of deficiency.
The aims of a national dietary study are several-fold. One purpose is to monitor the intake of foods and nutrients in the population and to compare intakes with dietary recommendations. It is, however, difficult to measure dietary fat intake and plasma biomarker fatty acid (FA) composition may be used as an objective measure of dietary fat intake. Thus, the relative ability of a diet record to capture habitual fat intake was validated against biomarker FA. Dietary fat intake was measured in a novel self-assisted web-based 4-d food record – the ‘Riksmaten’ method. Spearman rank correlations between dietary FA, certain food groups (fish-shellfish, dairy products, meat and sausages, and spreads) and the fat content of these food groups and biomarker FA were explored. Participants were 150 women and 129 men, aged 18–80 years, who took part in the Swedish National Dietary Survey, Riksmaten adults 2010–11. Blood samples were collected on average 20 d after the diet record and FA composition was measured in plasma phospholipids by GLC. Total n-3 FA (r 0·31), EPA (r 0·34) and DHA (r 0·42) were correlated between plasma and diet (all P ≤ 0·001). Adjustment for covariates attenuated the relationships. Linoleic acid was only marginally correlated (r 0·15; P = 0·06) in women. Plasma pentadecaenoic acid and heptadecaenoic acid were correlated with dairy product intake as previously reported. In conclusion, the Riksmaten method appears valid for the purpose of collecting data on dietary fat composition, at least in a healthy adult population.