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Cotton and soybean growers were offered new technologies in 2016, expanding in-crop herbicide options to include dicamba or 2,4-D. Within three years of commercialization, dicamba use in these crops increased ten-fold and growers began to report Palmer amaranth escapes in dicamba-tolerant production systems in western Tennessee. In 2020, Palmer amaranth seed was collected from eight Tennessee locations where growers witnessed poor control following dicamba. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of these Palmer amaranth populations to dicamba. In 2021, field experiments were conducted on two tentative dicamba-susceptible populations in Georgia, on three confirmed dicamba-resistant populations in Tennessee, and on a tentative dicamba-susceptible population in Texas to evaluate cotton response following dicamba and to examine if malathion insecticide (a cytochrome P450 inhibitor) would improve weed control and not reduce cotton yield when applied in conjunction with dicamba. Palmer amaranth populations collected in 2020 survived dicamba in the greenhouse at 1, 2, and 4 times the labeled rate. There was 15 to 26% survival exhibited by five Palmer amaranth populations to the labeled dicamba rate (560 g ha-1) in the greenhouse. These findings were reinforced in the field when research on three of those populations in 2021 showed 55% control with the labeled dicamba rate and 69% control with 2 times the labeled rate. This demonstrates the dicamba resistance allele or alleles were passed between generations. This result was not consistent in the Macon County or Worth County, GA locations where malathion improved dicamba control of 15- to 38-cm tall Palmer amaranth. Cotton injury was observed when malathion was applied in combination with dicamba. These results further document the evolution of dicamba-resistant Palmer amaranth in Tennessee. Moreover, the non-reversal of resistance phenotype by malathion may suggest that the resistance mechanism is something other than metabolism.
With the increase in hectares planted to auxin-resistant cotton, the number of preplant, at-plant, and postplant applications of dicamba and 2,4-D choline to aid in the control of troublesome broadleaf weeds, including glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, has increased. More dicamba and 2,4-D choline applications mean an increased risk of off-target movement. Field studies were conducted in 2019 to 2021 at the Texas Tech University New Deal Research Farm to evaluate dicamba-resistant cotton response to various rates of 2,4-D choline when applied at four growth stages (first square [FS] + 2 wk, first bloom [FB], FB + 2 wk, and FB + 4 wk). Applications of 2,4-D choline were applied at 1,060 (1X), 106 (1/10X), 21 (1/50X), 10.6 (1/100X), 2.1 (1/500X), and 1.06 (1/1000X) g ae ha−1 to Deltapine 1822 XF cotton. Relative to the nontreated control, yield losses were observed in all years at FS + 2 wk and FB from rates of 2,4-D choline ≥ 1/100X. At the FB + 4 wk application, only the 1X rate of 2,4-D choline resulted in a yield reduction in all three years. Micronaire, fiber length, and uniformity were negatively influenced by the 1/10X and 1X rates of 2,4-D choline at various timings in 2019, 2020, and 2021. In addition, short fiber content, neps, and seed coat neps increased where micronaire, fiber length, and uniformity were negatively impacted.
The southern United States produces 90% of the nation’s cotton, and the Texas High Plains is the largest contiguous cotton producing region. Since 2011, glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth has complicated cotton production, and alternatives to glyphosate are needed. Integrating soil residual herbicides into a weed management program is a crucial step to control glyphosate resistant weeds before emergence. The recent development of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-resistant cotton by BASF Corporation may allow growers to use isoxaflutole in future weed management programs. In 2019 and 2020, field experiments were conducted in New Deal, Lubbock, and Halfway, Texas, to evaluate HPPD-resistant cotton response to isoxaflutole applied preemergence (PRE) or early postemergence (EPOST) and to determine the efficacy of isoxaflutole when used as part of a season-long weed management program. At the New Deal location, cotton response was observed following the EPOST application, but it never exceeded 10%. Cotton response was greatest following the PRE application in Lubbock in 2019 but did not exceed 14%. In 2020 in Lubbock, cotton was replanted due to severe weather. There was <1% cotton response following the PRE application, and maximum cotton response observed was 9% following EPOST and mid-postemergence (MPOST) applications. Cotton lint yields were not different from those of the nontreated, weed-free control at either location. In non-crop weed control studies in Halfway, all treatments controlled Palmer amaranth ≥94% 21 d after the EPOST application. Twenty-one days after the MPOST treatment, systems with isoxaflutole applied EPOST controlled Palmer amaranth by 88% to 93%, while systems with isoxaflutole PRE controlled Palmer amaranth by 94% to 98%. End-of-season Palmer amaranth control was lowest in the system without isoxaflutole (88%) and when isoxaflutole was used EPOST (88% to 91%). These studies suggest that the use of isoxaflutole in cotton weed management systems may improve season-long control of several troublesome weeds with no adverse effects on cotton yield and quality.
BASF Corp. has developed p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor–resistant cotton and soybean that will allow growers to use isoxaflutole in future weed management programs. In 2019 and 2020, a multi-state non-crop research project was conducted to examine weed control following isoxaflutole applied preemergence alone and with several tank-mix partners at high and low labeled rates. At 28 d after treatment (DAT), Palmer amaranth was controlled ≥95% at six of seven locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron or fluridone. These same combinations provided the greatest control 42 DAT at four of seven locations. Where large crabgrass was present, isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron, fluridone, pendimethalin, or S-metolachlor or isoxaflutole plus the low rate of fluometuron controlled large crabgrass ≥95% in two of three locations 28 DAT. In two of three locations, isoxaflutole plus the high rate of pendimethalin or S-metolachlor improved large crabgrass control 42 DAT when compared to isoxaflutole alone. At 21 DAT, morningglory was controlled ≥95% at all locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron and at three of four locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of fluometuron. At 42 DAT at all locations, isoxaflutole plus diuron or fluridone and isoxaflutole plus the high rate of fluometuron improved morningglory control compared to isoxaflutole alone. These results suggest that isoxaflutole applied preemergence alone or in tank mixture is efficacious on a number of cross-spectrum annual weeds in cotton, and extended weed control may be achieved when isoxaflutole is tank-mixed with several soil-residual herbicides.
Trifludimoxazin, a new protoporphyrinogen oxidase–inhibiting herbicide, is being evaluated for possible use as a soil-residual active herbicide treatment in cotton for control of small-seeded annual broadleaf weeds. Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted to compare vertical mobility and cotton tolerance of trifludimoxazin to flumioxazin and saflufenacil, which are two currently registered protoporphyrinogen oxidase–inhibiting herbicides for use in cotton, in three West Texas soils. Vertical soil mobility of trifludimoxazin was similar to flumioxazin in Acuff loam and Olton loam soils, but was more mobile than flumioxazin in the Amarillo loamy sand soil. The depth of trifludimoxazin movement after a 2.5-cm irrigation event ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 cm in all soils, which would not allow for crop selectivity based on herbicide placement, because ideal cotton seeding depth is from 0.6 to 2.54 cm deep. Greenhouse studies indicated that PRE treatments were more injurious than the 14 d preplant treatment when summarized across soils for the three herbicides (43% and 14% injury, respectively). No differences in visual cotton response or dry weight was observed after trifludimoxazin preplant as compared with the nontreated control within each of the three West Texas soils and was similar to the flumioxazin preplant across soils. On the basis of these results, a use pattern for trifludimoxazin in cotton may be established with the use of a more than 14-d preplant restriction before cotton planting.
Since the release of dicamba-tolerant cotton in 2016, preplant and POST applications of dicamba to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth have increased. With the increase in area treated with dicamba, the risk of off-target movement to nontarget crops has increased. A field study was conducted at the Texas Tech University New Deal Research Farm equipped with subsurface drip irrigation in 2017 and 2018 to evaluate non-dicamba tolerant cotton response to dicamba when applied at four crop growth stages [first square (FS) + 2 wk, first bloom (FB), FB + 2 wk, and FB + 5 wk]. Dicamba at 0.56 (1×), 0.056 (1/10×), 0.0112 (1/50×), 0.0056 (1/100×), and 0.00112 (1/500×) kg ae ha−1 was applied to ‘FM 1830GLT’ cotton. When applications were made at FS + 2 wk, a shift in boll nodal position was apparent following dicamba at the 1/50× rate in 2017 and at 1/10× in 2018 compared to the nontreated control (NTC). A shift in boll distribution from the 1/50× rate of dicamba was apparent at FB in 2017, but not in 2018. Dicamba applied at the 1× rate at FB + 2 wk resulted in reduced boll numbers. No change in boll number or boll position was apparent following any dicamba rate when applied at FB + 5 wk in both years. Dicamba applied at 1/500×, 1/100×, and 1/50× rates at all timings did not affect yield relative to the NTC. When dicamba was applied at the 1/10× rate, the greatest yield loss was observed at FS + 2 wk followed by FB and FB + 2 wk. Micronaire increased following dicamba applied at 1/10× at FS + 2 wk, FB, and FB + 2 wk in 2017. In 2018, micronaire decreased following dicamba applied at 1/10× at FB + 5 wk.
We conducted a survey in the major row-crop production regions of Texas to determine the response of waterhemp to glyphosate (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase [EPSPS] inhibitor), atrazine (photosystem II [PSII] inhibitor), pyrithiobac (acetolactate synthase [ALS] inhibitor), tembotrione (hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase [HPPD] inhibitor), fomesafen (protoporphyrinogen oxidase [PPO] inhibitor), and dicamba (synthetic auxin). We evaluated 127 accessions for these herbicides. Resistance was confirmed on the basis of plant survival within an accession, and the injury ratings of surviving plants were used to categorize each accession as resistant (<50% injury) or less sensitive (50% to 89% injury). For glyphosate, approximately 27% of all tested accessions were resistant and 20% were less sensitive. The Gulf Coast region had the most glyphosate-resistant accessions (46% of the accessions from this region), followed by the Blacklands region (9%). A dose-response assay of the most resistant waterhemp accession (TX-25) exhibited 17-fold resistance to glyphosate when compared with a susceptible standard. Waterhemp resistance to atrazine also was common in the Gulf Coast region. The accession with the greatest atrazine resistance (TX-31) exhibited 47- and 68-fold resistance to this herbicide when applied POST and PRE, respectively. Widespread resistance to pyrithiobac was observed in waterhemp accessions throughout the Blacklands and Gulf Coast regions. The most resistant accession identified in this study was 61-fold resistant compared with a susceptible standard. No high-level resistance was detected for tembotrione, dicamba, or fomesafen, but high variability in sensitivity to tembotrione and dicamba was observed. One waterhemp accession exhibited reduced sensitivity to fomesafen; the rest were sensitive. Overall, at least two accessions exhibited resistance or reduced sensitivity to herbicides with five different sites of action. The study illustrates the prevalence of multiple herbicide resistance in waterhemp accessions in Texas and emphasizes the need to implement diversified management tactics.
Field trials were conducted near Lubbock, TX, in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to evaluate non–2,4-D–resistant cotton response to low rates of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline. Cotton was treated with five rates of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline (0.0183, 0.183, 1.83, 18.3, and 183 g ae ha−1) at two application timings (nine leaf and first bloom). These rates correspond to contamination rates of 0.0008%, 0.008%, 0.08%, 0.8%, and 8%, respectively. Visual cotton injury, boll retention, lint yield, and fiber properties were recorded. When averaged over contamination rates, visual injury after applications made to nine-leaf cotton was greater than for first-bloom cotton in three of 3 yr and yield loss was greater when applications were made to nine-leaf cotton when compared with first-bloom cotton in two of 3 yr. Averaged over application timing, lint yield in 2013, 2014, and 2015 after glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline contamination rates of 0.0008% and 0.008% were not different than that of the nontreated control, whereas contamination rates of 0.08%, 0.8%, and 8% decreased yield by 3% to 20%, 45% to 58%, and 80% to 96%, respectively. Contamination rates of 0.0008%, 0.008%, 0.08%, and 0.8% rarely affected fiber quality; however, a contamination rate of 8% frequently decreased micronaire, fiber length, fiber length uniformity, and fiber strength. This decrease in fiber quality also resulted in a reduction in cotton loan value and potential financial return. Although decreases in fiber quality parameters were not observed with the 0.8% contamination rate, significant reductions in financial return occurred due to yield loss caused by injury from glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline.
A state-level survey was conducted across major row-crop production regions of Texas to document the level of sensitivity of Palmer amaranth to glyphosate, atrazine, pyrithiobac, tembotrione, fomesafen, and dicamba. Between 137 and 161 Palmer amaranth populations were evaluated for sensitivity to the labelled field rate (1X), and rated as resistant (≤49% injury), less sensitive (50% to 89% injury), or susceptible (90% to 100% injury). For glyphosate, 62%, 19%, 13%, and 13% of the populations from the High Plains, Central Texas, Rio Grande Valley, and Lower Gulf Coast, respectively, were resistant. Resistance to atrazine was more common in Palmer amaranth populations from the High Plains than in other regions, with 16% of the populations resistant and 22% less sensitive. Approximately 90% of the populations from the High Plains that exhibited resistance to atrazine POST also were resistant to atrazine PRE. Of the 160 populations tested for pyrithiobac, approximately 99% were resistant or less sensitive, regardless of the region. No resistance was found to fomesafen, tembotrione, or dicamba. However, 22% of the populations from the High Plains were less sensitive to 1X (93 g ai ha−1) tembotrione, but were killed at 2X, illustrating the background variability in sensitivity to this herbicide. For dicamba, three populations, all from the High Plains, exhibited less sensitivity at the 1X rate (controlled at the 2X rate; 1X = 560 g ae ha−1). One population exhibited multiple resistance to three herbicides with distinct sites of action (SOAs) involving acetolactate synthase, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, and photosystem II inhibitors. Palmer amaranth populations exhibited less sensitivity to approximately 15 combinations of herbicides involving up to five SOAs. Dose-response assays conducted on the populations most resistant to glyphosate, pyrithiobac, or atrazine indicated they were 30-, 32-, or 49-fold or more resistant to these herbicides, respectively, compared with a susceptible standard.
Weed management systems were established near Lubbock, TX in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to assess the effectiveness of premixed 2,4-D choline+glyphosate alone and in combination with glufosinate and soil-residual herbicides for Palmer amaranth control. Systems consisted of trifluralin applied preplant incorporated followed by an early POST application followed by a mid-POST application. Palmer amaranth control 21 days after the early POST application ranged from 75 to 90% for all treatments that included 2,4-D choline+glyphosate alone or in a tank-mixture in 2013. Twenty-eight days after the mid-POST application, Palmer amaranth was controlled 86 to 99% for all herbicide systems with the exception of systems that included a mid-POST application of glufosinate alone. Combined across 2014 and 2015, Palmer amaranth control 21 days after the early POST application ranged from 96 to 98% for all systems that included 2,4-D choline+glyphosate, 2,4-D choline alone, or 2,4-D choline in a tank-mixture. Combined across 2014 and 2015, Palmer amaranth control 28 days after the mid-POST application ranged from 95 to 100% with the exception of the following: trifluralin preplant incorporated followed by glufosinate with or without acetochlor applied early POST followed by glufosinate mid-POST and trifluralin preplant incorporated followed by glyphosate early POST followed by glyphosate mid-POST. Overall, numerous effective systems were identified; however, systems containing 2,4-D choline+glyphosate or 2,4-D choline early POST and/or mid-POST were among the most effective. Glyphosate or glufosinate only systems or systems that relied on glufosinate alone at the mid-POST timing were inconsistent and often performed poorly.
The dinitroaniline herbicides, trifluralin and pendimethalin, are applied to approximately 90% of land seeded to cotton on the Texas Southern High Plains. Trifluralin and pendimethalin at 0.6 and 1.1 kg ai/ha were applied annually to plots from 1983 through 1994. Cotton stand counts, lint yield, and fiber quality varied from year-to-year due to environmental conditions. Differences in lint yield or fiber quality over the 11-yr period were not related to herbicide applications.
Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to compare root development of jointed goatgrass to winter wheat. Time of seminal root development in jointed goatgrass was similar to that of winter wheat and to root development predicted by a model. The only exception was the epiblast node roots (−1A and −1B), which developed approximately 1 phyllochron later in jointed goatgrass than in winter wheat. At crown nodes, A and B roots developed later in jointed goatgrass than in winter wheat, but development of X and Y roots at these nodes was similar for both species. First-order branching at a given root axis in jointed goatgrass roots began approximately 1 phyllochron after development of that axis, compared to 2.5 phyllochrons for winter wheat and the model. Second- and third-order branching of jointed goatgrass roots began 1 and 0.5 phyllochrons earlier than the respective branching of winter wheat roots. Leaf and tiller development followed the same pattern with time for both species. Maximum distance between crown roots was 1.5 to 3 times greater in winter wheat than in jointed goatgrass. Root length density at the 0- to 10-cm depth was less for jointed goatgrass than for winter wheat, but there were no differences at greater depths. The frequency of branching of first-order laterals was greater for jointed goatgrass than for winter wheat. In the field, the relationship of jointed goatgrass shoot development to accumulated growing degree-days was linear (R2 = 0.97), with a slope and y-intercept similar to winter wheat (R2 = 0.95). These data, showing slight differences in root growth and development between jointed goatgrass and winter wheat, may be used in predictive modeling to better understand the biology and ecology of each species, and may be used in conjunction with other models to establish weed threshold levels and improve selective placement of fertilizers and herbicides to benefit crop development.
Variability in weed control following pyrithiobac applications has been observed under field conditions. The influence of temperature on this variability was investigated. Results from field studies performed over two growing seasons identified plant and air temperatures at the time of herbicide treatment that correlated with whole-plant efficacy differences. Based on the field data, weed control with pyrithiobac was acceptable at application temperatures of 20 to 34 C. To investigate a potential source of thermal limitations on pyrithiobac efficacy, the thermal dependence of in vitro inhibition of acetolactate synthase (ALS), the site of action for pyrithiobac, was examined. A crude leaf extract of ALS was obtained from Amaranthus palmeri. Relative inhibitor potency (I50) values were obtained at saturating substrate conditions for temperatures from 10 to 50 C. Regression analysis of field activity against I50 values showed the two data sets to be highly correlated (R2 = 0.88). The thermal dependence of enzyme/herbicide interactions may provide another means of understanding environmental factors limiting herbicidal efficacy and predicting herbicide inhibition at the whole-plant level.
In a kiln experiment, temperatures of 200 to 400 C for 120 sec reduced germination of jointed goatgrass seeds 50 to 100%. Postharvest field burning of wheat and jointed goatgrass stubble destroyed 43 to 64% of the jointed goatgrass spikelets located on the soil surface. Seeds contained in spikelets that were minimally burned (slightly browned) germinated 32 to 65%, while seeds contained in spikelets moderately (less than 50% charred) and severely burned (greater than 50% charred) germinated 5 and 0%, respectively. Field burning destroyed 90% or more of jointed goatgrass seeds in spikelets located on the soil surface. Burning may be a feasible method for controlling small infestations of this weed.
Homozygous, sethoxydim-tolerant corn was field tested at two locations in 1989 and 1990. Sethoxydim at 0.22, 0.44, and 0.88 kg ha−1 was applied to sethoxydimtolerant corn in the 3- and 7-leaf stages. None of the sethoxydim treatments caused visible injury to the sethoxydim-tolerant corn, but all treatments were lethal to a parental corn line used as a control. Sethoxydim applied at either stage of corn development had no effect on number of days to 50% silk emergence, plant height, or grain yield, compared to nontreated plants. Sethoxydim-tolerant corn was also tolerant to mixtures of sethoxydim plus other postemergence herbicides that control dicotyledonous weeds. Sethoxydim mixed with atrazine or sethoxydim applied in sequential applications with dicamba or 2,4-D gave annual grass control similar to sethoxydim applied alone. However, the sethoxydim plus bentazon treatment resulted in reduced grass control in comparison to sethoxydim alone. When the broadleaf herbicides were mixed with sethoxydim or applied as sequential treatments, broadleaf weed control was the same as when the broadleaf herbicides were applied alone. The high level of corn tolerance to sethoxydim and the broad spectrum of weed control resulting from combinations of sethoxydim plus other postemergence herbicides indicates that sethoxydim-tolerant corn hybrids could increase the options available for weed control in corn.
Field experiments conducted in 1991, 1992, and 1993 evaluated Palmer amaranth and devil's-claw control and cotton injury with pyrithiobac applied PPI, PRE, or POST. Pyrithiobac at 36 or 71 g ae/ha applied PPI, PRE, or POST did not injure cotton. Pyrithiobac at 140 g/ha applied PPI or PRE injured cotton 9 to 11% 6 wk after treatment. Cotton recovered and no injury was observed 12 wk after treatment. Pyrithiobac applied PPI and PRE at 71 g/ha controlled Palmer amaranth at least 97% 6 wk after treatment. Palmer amaranth control with pyrithiobac applied POST was more variable and influenced by environmental conditions. Palmer amaranth control with 71 g/ha of pyrithiobac exceeded that with 36 g/ha. Devil's-claw control with pyrithiobac was better with POST applications than PPI or PRE applications. Pyrithiobac applied POST at 140 g/ha controlled devil's-claw 83–97%. These studies indicate that pyrithiobac can effectively control Palmer amaranth and devil's-claw in cotton on the Texas Southern High Plains when applied at appropriate rates and timings.
Field studies were conducted in various peanut production regions of Texas and Oklahoma during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons to determine peanut response to single and sequential postemergence applications of pyraflufen-ethyl at the labelled use rate (3.6 g ai ha−1). Pyraflufen-ethyl injured peanut in all single and two-application treatments. Injury consisted of white spots on leaves up to 14 d after treatment and became small necrotic spots on older leaf tissue. No injury was apparent on any new growth. Injury did not translate into yield loss in three of five locations; however, yield reductions (approximately 26%) were observed in two of five locations. Peanut grade was not affected by pyraflufen-ethyl applications.
Field studies were conducted in different peanut-growing areas of Texas during the 1999 through 2001 growing seasons to evaluate yellow nutsedge control and peanut tolerance to diclosulam alone applied PRE, S-metolachlor alone applied POST, or diclosulam applied PRE followed by (fb) S-metolachlor applied POST. Yellow nutsedge control was > 80% at five of six locations when diclosulam at 0.018 or 0.026 kg/ha applied PRE was fb S-metolachlor applied POST at 0.56, 1.12, or 1.46 kg ai/ha. Peanut stunting was noted with diclosulam at the High Plains locations but not at the Rolling Plains or south Texas locations. This stunting with diclosulam was due to a combination of peanut variety and high soil pH. Peanut yield was not always increased where yellow nutsedge was controlled.
Tolerance to glufosinate has been bioengineered into cotton through the expression of a gene encoding the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT). Studies were conducted to determine thermal limitations on herbicide efficacy in bioengineered cotton. The 50% inhibition (I50) of glufosinate of the target-site enzyme glutamine synthetase was thermally dependent with the lowest values between 25 and 35 C. Larger values of I50 were measured above and below the 25 to 35 C range. The apparent Michaelis constant KM of the enzyme PAT was relatively stable from 15 to 30 C and increased more rapidly from 30 to 45 C. The two components in combination suggest the aggregate tolerance to glufosinate would not be thermally limited between 15 and 45 C. The thermal dependence of the aggregate tolerance in cotton suggests that glufosinate would not damage the crop over a range of temperatures. This prediction is in agreement with the results of field studies carried out over a number of years, which showed the glufosinate-tolerant cotton to be undamaged by glufosinate over a wide range of temperatures.
Field trials were conducted in Lubbock, TX in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate tank-mix combinations of glyphosate and glufosinate in GlyTol® LibertyLink® cotton for control of Palmer amaranth. Herbicide treatments included glyphosate and glufosinate applied at various tank-mix rate combinations (1X:1X, 1X:0.75X, 1X:0.5X, 1X:0.25X and 1X:0X of glyphosate plus glufosinate), proportional tank-mix rate combinations (1X:0X, 0.75X:0.25X, 0.5X:0.5X, 0.25X:0.75X, and 0X:1X of glyphosate plus glufosinate, where X is 0.84 kg ae ha−1 of glyphosate or 0.58 kg ai ha−1 of glufosinate ammonium), and in sequential (1X followed by 1X) applications of both herbicides in an overall weed management system. Greenhouse studies were conducted to quantify antagonistic or synergistic effects. Treatments included a nontreated control; glyphosate at 0.84, 0.63, 0.42, and 0.21 kg ha−1; glufosinate at 0.58, 0.44, 0.29, and 0.15 kg ha−1; and all tank-mix combinations of each herbicide rate. Dry weights were converted to percent growth values for each rate of the two herbicides alone, and these values were used to calculate expected responses of tank-mix combinations with the use of Colby's method. Expected values were compared to observed percent growth values using an augmented mixed-model method. Results of field studies indicated that tank mixes of glyphosate and glufosinate were less effective at controlling Palmer amaranth than glyphosate applied alone. The addition of any rate of glufosinate to a 1X rate of glyphosate reduced Palmer amaranth control compared to glyphosate alone. Greenhouse studies confirmed antagonism seen in the field. These results indicate that sequential applications of these two herbicides are a better option for Palmer amaranth weed management.