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Externalising problems are among the most common symptoms of mental health problems in preschool children.
To investigate the development of externalising problems in preschool children over time, and the way in which conduct problems are linked to hyperactivity problems.
In this longitudinal study, 195 preschool children were included. Latent growth modelling of conduct problems was carried out, with gender and hyperactivity at year 1 as time-invariant predictors.
Hyperactivity was a significant predictor for the intercept and slope of conduct problems. Children with more hyperactivity at year 1 had more conduct problems and a slower reduction in conduct problems. Gender was a significant predictor for the slope of conduct problems.
Children with more initial hyperactivity have less of a reduction in conduct problems over time. It is important to consider the role of hyperactivity in studies of the development of conduct problems.
Insomnia symptoms are common among old people, and hypnotics and sedative drugs are often prescribed in spite of small benefits. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and to analyze the association between insomnia symptoms, cognitive level, and prescription of hypnotics and sedatives among old people living in nursing homes.
The study comprised 2,135 people living in nursing homes in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Data concerning hypnotic and sedative drugs, cognitive function, and prevalence of insomnia symptoms were collected, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS).
The three most common insomnia symptoms were “sleeps for long periods during the day,” “interrupted night-time sleep,” and “wakes up early in the morning” with 57.8%, 56.4%, and 48.0%, respectively, of the residents exhibiting the symptoms at least once a week. Different insomnia symptoms showed different association patterns with sex and age. Most insomnia symptoms were more common among people with cognitive impairment compared to those with no cognitive impairment and seemed to reach their peak prevalence in people with moderate to severe cognitive impairment, subsequently decreasing with further cognitive decline. Of the study population, 24.0% were prescribed hypnotics and sedatives. Prescriptions were more common among those without cognitive impairment, and among those exhibiting the symptom “difficulty initiating sleep.”
Insomnia symptoms and prescription of hypnotics and sedatives are common among old people living in nursing homes. Considering the risk of adverse effects, it is important to regularly re-evaluate the need for these drugs.
The objective was to investigate whether irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicts the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood, and if any specific meal is of particular importance.
Prospective cohort study with 27 years of follow-up. Information on meals (breakfast, school lunch and dinner with family), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking habits, physical activity, consumption of sweets and pastries) at age 16 years was assessed from questionnaires, and presence or not of the metabolic syndrome and its components were defined at age 43 years in 889 participants (82·1 % of total cohort). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals.
The Northern Swedish Cohort; all school-leavers of the 9th grade in the town Luleå in 1981.
Adolescents (age 16 years).
Irregular eating of meals at age 16 years was associated with higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years (OR=1·74; 95 % CI 1·12, 2·71), but this was explained by concurrent unhealthy lifestyle at age 16 years. Poor breakfast at age 16 years was the only meal associated with the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years, independent of other meals, BMI (kg/m2) and lifestyle at age 16 years (OR=1·67; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·80).
Irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but not independently of BMI and lifestyle in adolescence. Poor breakfast in adolescence was the only specific meal associated with future metabolic syndrome, even after adjustments. Breakfast eating should be encouraged in adolescence.
To analyse whether poor breakfast habits in adolescence predict the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood. Previous studies suggest that regular breakfast consumption improves metabolic parameters.
Prospective. Breakfast habits and other lifestyle variables at age 16 years were assessed from questionnaires. Poor breakfast habits were defined as skipping breakfast or only drinking or eating something sweet. At age 43 years, the effective sample consisted of 889 participants defined as having the metabolic syndrome or not, using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals.
The Northern Swedish Cohort, a longitudinal population-based cohort with 27-year follow-up.
Adolescents (age 16 years).
Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years was 27·0 %. Of the participants, 9·9 % were classified with poor breakfast habits at age 16 years. Adjusted odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years was OR = 1·68 (95 % CI 1·01, 2·78) for those with poor breakfast habits at age 16 years compared with breakfast eaters. Looking at the metabolic syndrome components, poor breakfast habits at age 16 years were associated with central obesity (OR = 1·71; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·92) and high fasting glucose (OR = 1·75; 95 % CI 1·01, 3·02) at age 43 years, even after multivariate adjustments.
Poor breakfast habits in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Of the metabolic syndrome components, poor breakfast habits in adolescence predicted central obesity and high fasting glucose in adulthood. Further research is needed to fully understand the relationship between early breakfast habits and adult metabolic syndrome.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms are common among cognitively impaired individuals and psychotropic drugs are widely used for their treatment. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings.
The study comprised 2,019 cognitively impaired people living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Data concerning psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use, function in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms were collected, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale.
Of the study population, 1,442 individuals (71%) were prescribed at least one psychotropic drug (antidepressants (49%), anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives (36%), antipsychotics (25%)). Furthermore, 363 individuals (18%) received anti-dementia drugs. Associations between various behavioral and psychological symptoms were found for all psychotropic drug classes and anti-dementia drugs. Verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior was associated with all psychotropic drugs. Use of antipsychotics was associated with several behavioral and psychological symptoms, including aggressive behavior.
The associations between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use found in this study indicate that these drugs are prescribed to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among cognitively impaired individuals despite limited evidence of their efficacy. Given the significant risk of adverse effects among old people with cognitive impairment, it is important to ensure that any medication used is both appropriate and safe.
Background: The normal development of cortisol regulation during childhood is thought to be influenced by a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors. Method: The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and environmental influences on basal cortisol levels in a sample of 151 twin pairs aged 9–16 years. Salivary cortisol was collected on two consecutive days when the children attended school — immediately after awakening, 30 min post-awakening and at bedtime. Results: Heritability was highest (60%) for cortisol levels about 30 min after awakening. For samples taken immediately at awakening heritability was less pronounced (28%) and in the evening low (8%). Conclusion: The limited genetic influence on evening levels, moderate on cortisol at awakening and high on awakening response, might imply two genetic regulation patterns, one specifically for awakening response and one for the circadian rhythm proper. These findings could explain divergent results in previous studies and highlight the importance of taking the circadian rhythm into account in studies of cortisol levels in children.
Thylakoid membranes, derived from chloroplasts, have previously been shown to retard fat digestion and lower blood glucose levels after oral intake. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of thylakoid membranes on the passage of methyl-glucose, dextran and ovalbumin over rat intestine in vitro using Ussing chambers. The results show that thylakoids retard the passage of each of the test molecules in a dose-dependent way. The thylakoids appear to be attached on the mucosal surface and a mechanism is suggested that the thylakoids delay the passage of the test molecules by sterical hindrance. The present results indicate that thylakoid membranes may be useful both to control intestinal absorption of glucose and to enhance the barrier function of the intestine.
Pattern matching is an important operation in functional programs. So far, pattern matching has been investigated in the context of structured terms. This article presents an approach to extend pattern matching to terms without (much of a) structure such as binaries which is the kind of data format that network applications typically manipulate. After introducing the binary datatype and a notation for matching binary data against patterns, we present an algorithm that constructs a decision tree automaton from a set of binary patterns. We then show how the pattern matching using this tree automaton can be made adaptive, how redundant tests can be avoided, and how we can further reduce the size of the resulting automaton by taking interferences between patterns into account. Since the size of the tree automaton is exponential in the worst case, we also present an alternative new approach to compiling binary pattern matching which is conservative in space and analyze its complexity properties. The effectiveness of our techniques is evaluated using standard packet filter benchmarks and on implementations of network protocols taken from actual telecom applications.
This study compared the effects of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) on the homeostasis of nitric oxide (NO) in the lower respiratory tract of healthy rabbits. The mechanisms underlying a putative stretch response of NO formation in the airways were further elucidated. Male New Zealand White rabbits were anaesthetized, tracheotomized and ventilated with IMV or HFOV in random order. Total NO excretion increased from 9σ6 ± 0σ8 nl min-1 (mean ± S.E.M.) during IMV to 22σ6 ± 2σ7 nl min-1 during HFOV (P < 0σ001). This increase was not explained by changes of functional residual capacity ([Delta]>FRC). A similar increase in NO excretion during HFOV was seen in isolated buffer-perfused lungs under constant circulatory conditions (P < 0σ05, n = 4). Intratracheal mean CO2 and NO concentrations, measured at 2σ5, 5, 7σ5 and 10 cm below tracheostomy, increased significantly with increasing distance into the lung during both IMV and HFOV (P < 0σ001 for each comparison). At every intratracheal location of the sampling catheter, particularly low in the airways, both CO2 and NO concentrations were significantly higher during HFOV than during IMV (P < 0σ01 for each comparison). We conclude that HFOV increases pulmonary NO production in healthy rabbits. Increased stretch activation of the respiratory system during HFOV is suggested as a possible underlying mechanism. The increase in mean airway NO concentrations may have biological effects in the respiratory tract. Whether it can account for some of the benefits of HFOV treatment needs to be considered.
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