The spatial distribution of collaborative targets and the information collaboration process are two important factors affecting the efficiency of real-time collaborative navigation. Addressing these factors, this paper presents the following work. First, the collaborative communication process between navigation targets is designed and illustrated with an application example. Second, the feature and error condition of the spatial distribution of collaborative targets is analysed. Then, a method based on CGDOP (collaborative geometric dilution of precision) value is proposed for the evaluation of the actual spatial distribution conditions of collaborative targets. Finally, a simulated experiment is conducted to evaluate the collaborative navigation process and the collaboration effect of the collaborative navigation network in different spatial shapes. Overall, the results of this study optimised the observation and application efficiency of navigation data, and improved the stability and reliability of real-time navigation service through multi-target collaborative navigation.